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Question: Write a one page reflection about what was meaningful for you about this reading The...

The Nurse as Healing Environment 29 inward, reaching a calm, relaxed, and open state of consciousness akin to a meditative stHOLISTIC NURSING PRACTICLY 1992 assistant recorded the actual clapsed time. Timc estimates were obtained for three ses- sionsThe Nurse as Healing Environment 31 TIME DISTORTION MINUTES - 0 sb with cb cb 6/23 6/25 6/24 DATE Fig 1. Timc distortion esti32 HOLISTIC NURSING PRACTIC:/Juny 1992 TIME DISTORTION MINUTES 25 30 . 6/22 6.23 6.24 DATE Fig 3. Time distortion estimates oThe Nurse as Healing Environment 33 was going to be here for the rest of the time; I really do feel like Ive been cheated ou34 Housn NURSING PRACng/Juny 1992 sonalities and identities. It is suggested here that the relationship occurs in the implicaThe Nurse as Healing Environment 35 when the study concluded. The healing that was experienced by all was obvious. Inherent iHolding sacred space: The nurse as healing environment Janet F. Quinn, PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor and Senior Scholar CThe Nurse as Healing Environment 27 This later perspective provides the focus for the remainder of this article. In a 1982 st28 Housnc NURSING PRACTICE/Ju.Y 1992 We can participate in creating environments that will support healing. nursing.2341 43 T

Question: Write a one page reflection about what was meaningful for you about this reading

The Nurse as Healing Environment 29 inward, reaching a calm, relaxed, and open state of consciousness akin to a meditative statc. In this mcditative state of conscious ness, the Therapeutic Touch practitioner then formulates the intent to help or to heal and fo- cuses outwardly on wholeness and balance in the recipient, which, it is hypothesized, has the potential to accelerate the recipicnt's in- natc inner healing process. Plcase note that the terms "inner" and "outer" are, of course, in- congruent with a world view of unity and must be understood as mctaphors or heuristic devices to describe in a three-dimensional lan guage a nonlincar, multidimensional phenom- cnon. In the context of the present discussion, this process on the part of the Therapeutic Touch practitioner may be thought of as a repatterning of her or his own cnergy field in the direction of expanded consciousness, a consciousness experienced as unificd, harmo- nious, peaceful, ordered, and so forth, and un- derstood to be a "healing mcditation. It is proposed here that being in process with a nurse in such a meditative state of conscious- ness may provide a templatc of sorts upon which the clicnt may repattcm. Using the mctaphor of sound, the pattcm, or vibration of the nurse's consciousness becomes a tuning fork, resonating at a healing frequency, while the clicnt has the opportunity within the mu- tual person-cnvironment process to tunc, to resonate, to that frequency. Bcntov approxi- mates this perspective in thc following words: the real reality-the microrcality, that which under lics ... our solid reality--is a rapidly pulsating matrix of fields of energy, an interference pattern of waves filling the vast vacuumn of our hodics and continuing beyond them in a more diluted fashion ... we may look at a discase as an out-of-tunc behavior... When a strong harmonizing rhythm is applied to it, the interfer ence pattern of waves, may start heating in tunc again. This may be the principle of psychic healing.' This may also be the principle or mccha nism of Therapeutic Touch. This perspective involves a shift in previous descriptions of the phenomenon of Therapeutic Touch. Previ- ously, Therapeutic Touch has been described as an "energy exchange," rcquiring a model that includes at Icast theoretically a here and a there: a source of cncrgy and a recipient of cncrgy. However, in a model of interconnect cdness, there is no here or there. The under- standing of Therapeutic Touch as presented hcrcin is, I bclicve, more consistent with the evolution in Rogers' own thinking." Thus, it is postulated that the nurse, con- Icred in a meditative state of consciousness, an expanded consciousness in Newman's terms,12 15 may knowingly participate in the repattcmning of the client's consciousness such that the client's consciousness may also cxpand. In this sense, the nurse and the client share consciousness. In Newman's framc. work, expansion of consciousness is equiva- lent to hcalth/healing. Thus, the repattcming of consciousness that can occur during Thera- peutic Touch may be viewed as movement toward health. TIME EXPERIENCE DURING THERAPEUTIC TOUCII One of the indices of expanded conscious- ness is postulated to be an alteration in time pcrccption." 15,1 To begin exploration of the idea that an expanded consciousness may be shared during Therapeutic Touch, data about timc perception during Therapeutic Touch treatment were collected during a larger re- scarch project. This descriptive pilot study explored the effects of Therapeutic Touch on selected psychoimmunologic parameters in both practitioners and recipients. Participants were two very experienced Therapeutic
HOLISTIC NURSING PRACTICLY 1992 assistant recorded the actual clapsed time. Timc estimates were obtained for three ses- sions for rccipicnt CB, and six for the remain- ingrccipicnts, MG, VD, and GS. RESULTS Touch practitioners and four recently be rcaved Therapeutic Touch recipients. All par- ticipants completed informed consent forms prior to cntry into the data collcction for the study. Only the information relevant to time perception shall be presented here. Treatment consisted of the practitioner ad- ministering Thcrapcutic Touch in the manner in which it has becn taught, that is, using the sequcntial stcps developed by Kricgcro and Kunz and described clsewhere. Beyond this gcncral guideline, the practitioner was permit tcd to perform Therapeutic Touch as she usu ally docs and for the length of time that she deemed appropriate. Both practitioners and rccipicnts were asked to estimate the amount of time that had clapsed since the Therapeutic Touch treatment had begun. Actual clock time for the Icngth of trcalment was also re- corded by mcans of a stopwatch that was kept face down in the treatment room after being started by the practitioner. The practitioner stopped the stopwatch at the end of the trcat- ment without tuming it over, and a research Table 1 presents the amount and direction of time distortion, the difference between ac- tual time clapsed and subject's report of clapsed time, in both practitioners and recipi- e nts. A (-) sign indicates that the estimated clapsed time was under, or less than the ac- tual clapsed time. No sign indicates that the estimate was over, or more than, the actual clapsed time. Each practitioner-recipicnt pair of estimates has also been graphed (see Figs 1-4). It can be observed that there is no radily apparent relationship between the magnitude of timc distortion experienced by the practi- tioners and that experienced by their respec tive recipients. However, there is a very obvi- ous correspondence between practitioners and Table 1. Time distortion in practitioners (P) with their respective recipients (R) in Sessions (S) 1 through 6 P&R Initials si S2 S3 S4 S5 So SB CB (P) (R) 4:58 - 11:30 -8:36 - 11:14 -2:48 -- 15:00 5:23 2:38 3:28 4:04 2:19 3:19 4: 1:43 2:0 4:04 3:28 --:45 :10 :57 -3:57 -1:19 -2:19 - 3:45 4:01 -6:01 :53 2:04 -2:20 2:40 -1:05 -2:05 - 1:57 -:57 -:07 -1:46 - 2:04
The Nurse as Healing Environment 31 TIME DISTORTION MINUTES - 0 sb with cb cb 6/23 6/25 6/24 DATE Fig 1. Timc distortion estimates of practitioner SB with recipient CB. TIME DISTORTION MINUTES sb with vc vd 6/22 6/23 6/25 6/296/30 11 DATE Fig 2. Timc distortion estimates of practitioner SB with recipient VD. their respective recipicnts in the direction of that time distortion. While there are several cxccptions, the great majority (81%) of pairs of timc distortions (ic, the practitioner and the recipient in any given session) are in the same direction. SB and her two recipients are strik- ing in this regard, with a 100% congrucnce in both recipients. Of particular interest is the
32 HOLISTIC NURSING PRACTIC:/Juny 1992 TIME DISTORTION MINUTES 25 30 . 6/22 6.23 6.24 DATE Fig 3. Time distortion estimates of practitioner GA with recipient 16 TIME DISTORTION MINUTES 52? 23 24 25 : . . DATE Fig 1. Time distortion estimates of practitioner (A with recipient is variation in the direction in the data for VD. This practitioner and recipient pair varied to- gether in the direction of timc distortion on al- Icmatc days. This varying together suggests that the observed paltem is not a stable or rigid response pattem but rather with a unique rela- tionship that changes from treatment to treat- ment. Examining Fig 2 gives one a visual im age of the "in sync-ness" or resonience that appears to have existed in these treatment ses
The Nurse as Healing Environment 33 was going to be here for the rest of the time; I really do feel like I've been cheated out of half of it... I wish I knew how to do it to someone else ... I'm sure it helped me, I really am ... I find it absolutely fascinat- ing that my mood can change from a little bit of touch or treatment or whatever you want to call it. sions. It is as if the two participants arc danc- ing or flowing together in consciousness. In GA's two recipients, there are two pat- tems. In MG, there is a 100% congruence, and in GS, there is 50%. GS had the Icast magni- tude of time distortion, in addition to present- ing with a different pattern in terms of direc- tion. It is possible that the ability of her systcm to shift into an expanded state of conscious- ness, and thus to experience the time distor- tion, was influenced by her antidepressant medication. VD: ...(my head clears) as time goes by (during treal- ment) it's nice ... this is real quiet and it's sort of like getting up from a sleep ... it's very calming and very restful; nonthreatening . . . I think that's nice if some one can make you feel like that in the middle of the day... I felt cared for, deeply cared for by ... Hmmm, I don't even know her name. RECIPIENTS' EXPERIENCES MG: ... Loday I was very nervous all morning when I came in ... Now I'm very calm, relaxed, and I don't know why but I am ... I can tell, I don't believe it, but I can tell where her hands are; it seems like I can feel something like a weak radiant hcat... I don't make sense, do I?...I get these feelings I think they're wrong, but I think coming here takes them out of me... it docsn't make sense, does it? The data on time seem to suggest a “shar- ing" of expanded consciousness experienced by practitioners and recipients. In exploring the healing potential of this phenomenon, as hcaling has been defined herein, it is useful to consider the recipients' own stories. Each of the recipients was interviewed on the last day of the study. Of particular note are two re- sponses that occurred across all recipients. GS: ... I do find it relaxing... whether it has any re sidual value, I don't know ... it's very hard to cvaluate ... it's plcasant, it's very pleasant... it's pleasant and relaxing They all felt relaxed, and they were all surprised by that. They all felt relaxcd, and they were all sur- prised by that. The surprise is particularly im- portant in the context of healing as a creative cmcrgence of something new. Some of the comments are included below to provide a sense of the recipient's cxpcricnce of repatterning during the Therapeutic Touch process. CB:... I think it has helped me - I really do... I think it's fascinating that you can tum me on and off ... the first day I went home and felt just so relaxed and all I wanted to do was go to sleep, and then the next day I went home and I had a lot more energy ... I just wish I These comments suppon the other psycho- logical findings of the study and suggest addi- tional insights into thd Therapeutic Touch process. The comment of VD that "I don't even know her name" is particularly telling. He was in the midst of describing a feeling of being dccply cared for/about and suddenly re. alized that he didn't know the namc of the per- son doing the caring. This illustrates in quite a dramatic way the transpersonal nature of the healing intcraction, which is an example of a "caring occasion," in Watson's language.?upos It is not an interaction based on a conditional connection of individual personalities, but rather involves the practitioner in engaging with the recipient on some deeper yet imper- sonal and unconditional level. In other words, the caring in the healing relationship takes place on a level that transcends individual per-
34 Housn NURSING PRACng/Juny 1992 sonalities and identities. It is suggested here that the relationship occurs in the implicatc order," the underlying unificd ficld in which the practitioner and the recipient arc, in real- ity, already onc. Therapeutic Touch allows both to experience this. DISCUSSION This pilot study included an exploration into the potential for resonance of two indi vidual human ficlds of consciousness during a healing interaction. The findings suggost such a resonance. Therapeutic Touch has been used as an cxcmplar of the promise that the nurse can be the healing cnvironment for the client during treatment. Yet the use of Theri- peutic Touch is by no mcans the only way in which nurses can become healing environ ments. The singular promise of this article is that it is the intentional use of expanded con- sciousness that can allow a unique, healing human-environment process, regardless of the specific means or moxlality the nurse uses to knowingly participate in this process. The pivotal role of intentionality was supported in carlier work, which demonstrated that pa tients receiving a mimic Therapeutic Touch treatment had no change in anxiety, whereas patients who received Therapeutic Touch, with its centering and intention to heal, had a dramatic decrease in anxicly following treat- mcnt. The use of hcaling moxdalities that require the nurse to expand her or his consciousness also have the potential to create broader heal- ing environments than the localized one sur munding a particular treatment. Our goal in the pilot study was to observe the outcomes of Thcrapcutic Touch in as natural and noninvasive a way as possible. The setting for this study was ideal. The suite of offices pro- vided an environment that was separate from the noise and potentially negative assox'iations of the hospital. More to the point, however, was the human caring environment that was created among the research team and that "overflowed" into the physical environment creating a safe place, a literal energetic c(). coon, of caring and 4* into which there cipicnts cnicred cach day. Because this was a descriptive study, no constraints were placed on the interactions of the investigator, the practitioners, and the recipients heron, dur. ing, or after treatment. This means that there lationship between the practitioner and there cipicnt was not limited or prescribed as it has been in other Therapeutic Touch studies, but allowed to develop as it does in actual clinical use of the treatment. As the investigator of this study. I often found myself tom hetween wor. rying about confounding the study and yet knowing that this was the real thing" as 1 watched and took part in) deepening relation- ships with the recipients as they amived and participated each day. Evidence of these deep- cning relationships was abundant. There was a dramatic increase in the amount of touchin hugging, back-patting and so forth, that went on in the waiting room between the recipients practitioners, and investigator. There was more smiling, mon laughing. non conversa tion. There was non lingering and more in- teraction among the recipients. There was more inquiring into and sharing of personal lives coming from the recipients. The change in the affect, the facial and bexty language and tone of voice of these people over the course of the study was quite profound. Subjects were never late and arrived after the first day) always appearing delighted to ti there and eager for their treatments to begin. Every re- cipient expressed sadness and disappointment
The Nurse as Healing Environment 35 when the study concluded. The healing that was experienced by all was obvious. Inherent in the basic premise of this article is a challenge and a call to the nurse who as- pires to practice out of a holistic, unitary framework. If we accept the basic premises of holism, of an interconnected universe, and of the fundamental inseparability of individuals onc from the other, then we are called to look ancw at how we knowingly participate in that universe. We can no longer vicw the environ- ment solely as being "out there," amenable to our knowing participation in repaticming it yet somchow fundamentally other than sell. We are the environment, for our patients, our colleagues, our communities, and our world. Dillbecks reports on a series of studics on the cffects of the number of pcoplc practicing transcendental mcditation (TM)in various cit- ics and the corresponding crime rates. The data demonstrate decreases in crime rate when more than 1% of the community mcdi- Late regularly. This cffcct has been termed the "Maharishi cffect,"26_p256) since it was pre- dicted by the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of TM. What would be the cffcct in a single hospital if 1% of the nurses began to practice healing modalitics using expanded consciousness? The vicw put forth in this article would seem to demand much of us as nurses. Yet it is clear that in the prexcess of expanding our oun consciousness, of becoming healing environ- ments, sacred spaces, we ourselves are healed. What could be more deserving of our intent and effon? REFERENCES 1. Barrett EAM. Health paticming with clients in a private practice environment. In: Barrett BAM, cd. Visions of Rogers' Science-based Nursing New York, NY: Sa tional league for Nursing: 1990. 2 Nightingale Notes on Nursing New York, NY: D ver; 1969 3. Barrett AM Rogers' science hascd nursing practice In: Barreu EAM. cd. Visions of Rogers' Science teased Nursing New York, NY: National I.cague for Nursing 1990. 4. Quinn J. An Investigation of the Effects of Therapeutic Touch. Done Without Physical Contact, on State Anu ely of llospitalized Cardiovascular Patients. Ann Ar box, Mich: University Microfilms: 1982. 5. Vaughn F. Transpersonal viston ReVision 1985.(1): 11-15 6. Grof S. Reyond the Rrain Albany, NY: State University of New York: 1985. 7. Grof S. Modem consciousness rescarch and human sur vival. ReVision. 1985:8(1):27-39. X. Grof S. The Adventure Sell Discovery Albany, NY: Staic University of New York; 1988. 9. Rogers ME. An Introduction to the Theoretical Ranks for Nursing Philadelphia, Ps: 1A Davis; 1970. 10. Rogers ME. Science of unitary human heings. In: Malinski VM, ed. Explorations on Martha Rogers' Sci ence of Initary Human Beings Sorwalk, Cinn Appleton Century-Crofts: 1986 11 Rogers ME Sursing Science of unilan irreducible human beings Lipulate 1990. In Barreu EAM. sions of Rogers Science hased Nursing New York, NY: Satronal league for Nursing: 1990. 12. Newman M. Theory Development in Nursinx Ihlade! phia, Pa: FA Davis 1979 13. Newman M. Time as an inde panding conclus ness with age Nursing Research 1982, 31(50.200.291 14. Newman M. lleulih as Expanding consoles Si Luis, Mo: Mosby: 1986. IS. Newman M Newman's theory of health as pratis Nursing Scene Quarterly 1947,M(1) 37-41 16. Quinn J. Therapeutic touch as energy c change Testing the theory Alunces in Nursing Scene 1984.61). 49 17. Quinn J. Therapeutic touch as energy exchange Repli cation and criensan. Nwsing Science (warterly 1989:2(2):79-47 1x Bentov I. Stalking the Wild Pendulwn New York, NY Tatlon: 1977 19. Rohm 1). Wheleness and the impluule (Order Land lingland: Routledge & Kegan l'aul: 1980 20. Wcher R The enfolding unfolding universe Aconver Satan with David Behm Rel'usun 1978,104) 24.51
Holding sacred space: The nurse as healing environment Janet F. Quinn, PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor and Senior Scholar Center for Human Caring University of Colorado Health Sciences Center School of Nursing University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado W HILE THE CONCEPT of environ- ment has been considered central to nursing's paradigm since Florence Nightin- galc, along with person, health, and nursing, there has been little emphasis on this concept in the nursing literature or in nursing cur. ricula. The focus of this article is the client- cnvironment process as a special case of the human-environment relationship. There are at least two ways of conceptualiz- ing the nurse's place in the client environment process. The first, which is most common, is to think of the nurse as being in the environ- mcnt of the client. In this view, nurses and cli- ent are looking out, if you will, from the same vantage point into the same environment "Nursing care in this (Roger's system is con- cemed with pattcming the environmental field. The nurse, together with the client, pal- tems the environment to promote healing and comfort." (pl) Questions we might ask if this is the focus would be, "What can the nurse de to creato (pattem) an environment that is more uue sy The study reported herein was funied by the Nerelic Sciences Hrastar Nws Pront 1992:0(4) 20. 192 Aspen Publishers, Inc.
The Nurse as Healing Environment 27 This later perspective provides the focus for the remainder of this article. In a 1982 study. I raised the question, "What are the limits of in- fucncc if the means of influence is an energy field?'aplon I have considered the question from many vicwpoints, and this article is an attempt at response based on 17 years of clini- cal and theoretical work with the use of nonordinary states of consciousness for heal- ing, including Therapeutic Touch and, more recently, transpersonal psychology and holotropic brcathwork.** CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK hcaling for the client? What changes could be made in this environment? What could be dc- Icted and what could be added?" Issues of color, light, sound, activity, temperaturc-in csscnce, many of the issues with which Night ingalc> was so conccmcdwould call for our attention. Following appraisal and alteration of the physical environment, the holistic nurse in the environment might then tum attention to the use of particular hcaling modalitics to assist in pattcming a more hcaling environ- ment for the client. Barrett said, "Regardless of the practice modality being used, the nurse's objective is to patiem the client's cn- vironment to promote health and well being. '*Xp35) Imagery, visualization, relaxation, and music therapy might all be used to alter the environment with which the client is inter acting at that moment such that a more harmo- nious, healing process is possible. The nurse, while theoretically integral with the client's cnvironment, continues to act from the posi- tion of a separate self in the environment, shaping and sculpting it in cfforts to facilitate client healing. Consider now another vicw of the nurse's place in the client-environment process. In addition to thinking of the nurse in the envi- ronment of the client, think of the nurse as the cnvironment of the client. In this perspective, the nurse tums toward her or his understand ing of the "nursc-scil" as an cncrgetic, vibra- tional field, integral with the client's environ- ment. Questions we might ask if this is the focus might be, "If I am thc cnvironment for this client, how can I be a more healing cnvi. ronment? How can I become a safe space, a sacred hcaling vessel for this client in this mo- mcnt? In what ways can I look at, into this per- son to draw out healing? How can I use my consciousness, my being, my voice, my touch, my face, for hcaling?" The conceptual framework within which this article has been developed incorporates theoretical perspectives originated in nursing by Rogers, expanded by Newman, 15 and tested by Quinn.16,17 and others. The frame- work is supported and further expanded by the works of Bentov,'Bohm,19,28 Grof.** Pribram,2122 Watson, and others. In the early 1970s, Rogers introduced into nursing the concept that the fundamental unit of the living system was an energy field, cocxtensive with the environmental energy field. At the time. this was a revolutionary idea in nursing, and an unacceptable conjecture of little or no in- terest to Westem mcdicine. Today, one can- not approach the cutting edge of essentially any modem scientific discipline, nor the tradi- tion of any major spiritual culture, and not see that same idea proposed. No longer merely conjecture, the interconnectedness of all of life seems clear. Scholars, artists, and futurists alike arc writing about this phenomenon in fields as diverse and different from cach other as quantum physics, * 20 biology, Westem medicine, 29 29 Ayurveda," psychology. 8,32,3 psychoneuroimmunology, philoso- phy, 15,36 thcology and spirituality," and
28 Housnc NURSING PRACTICE/Ju.Y 1992 We can participate in creating environments that will support healing. nursing.2341 43 The cmcrging vicw of our world includes the concepts that the human bcing is a nonmaterial, multidimensional field integral with the environment/universal field: that consciousness is nonlocal, unbounded by physical structure and function; and that sepa- rateness of the individual from all other indi- viduals is an illusion. Westem mystics like Hildegard of Bingcn and contemporary art ists like Alex Greyd provide us with insight into these same phenomenon through exquis. ite paintings, poctry, and prosc depicting con tact with thc energetic nature and underlying unity of all of life. What are the implications of these ancient cmcrging vicws of the nature of person and cnvironment? How do our conceptions of har- mony in the human-environment relationship shift when we are talking fundamentally about an energetic resonance, a vibrational phenomenon, paticming? Most importantly for this article, how can nursing utilize these vicws to maximize hcaling--for ourselves. our clients, our communities, and our planct? wholc. Yet there is a role for nurses. We can remove barriers to the healing process. We can participate in creating environments that will support healing. We can become mid- wives to this process of healing, creating and being safc, sacred NUC into which the heal- ing might cmerge. We can literally, become the healing cnvironment. THE NURSE AS HEALING ENVIRONMENT PURPOSE Taking these ideas as basic assumptions, thc purpose of this article is to explore thc po- tcntials of this model of reality for creating healing environments. A healing environment is one that facilitates thc cmcrgcncc of the Haclan cffcct, the synergistic, organismic, multidimensional response of wholc persons in the dircction of hcaling and wholcncss. Healing, the cmergence of right relationship at, between, and among all the levels of hu- man being, is always accomplished by the one healing. No one and no thing can heal another human being. All healing is creative cmer gence, new birth, the manifestation of the powerful inner longing, at every level, to be Given that we are interconnected to all of life, our consciousness is not separate and apart but integral with all consciousness. We can knowingly participate in this web of interconnectedness toward repattcming and healing for ourselves and for others through the intentional use of our own consciousness. The clinical practice of Therapeutic Touch is an cxcmplar of this promise because its modus opcrandi is a shift in the consciousness of the practitioner (centering) through which, clini- cal experience and empirical study. 16.4.4dem- onstrate, there can also be a shift in conscious- ness of the recipient. Cowling suggests that "the nurse could knowingly participate in hu- man field patterning through his/her interconnectedness to the client. possible in a four-dimensional universe of open fields. For instance, it has been suggested that a humanto human field process operates in Therapeutic Touch through the mode of... intentionality on the part of the nurse. pl) At the start of a Therapeutic Touch session, the nurse centers, that is, tums attention first
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This research paper presents is related to nursing practice and use procedure therapeutic touch in providing care .Researcher has explained that disease as an out of tune behavior.Researcher used Newman's frame work.Expansion of consciousness bus equivalent to health/healing.Pilot's study on this procedure (Therapeutic touch ) was reveled that "Therapeutic touch on selected psychoimmunological parameters in both practitioners and recipient's given result's" There is no relationship between magnitude of time distortion. Therapeutic touch create an healing environment..

Experience of therapeutic recipients."They all felt relaxed and they were all surprised by that."

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  • I want you to formulate FOUR PRACTICAL Knowledge Questions (aka CASE STUDY QUESTIONS) with it'sANSWERS from...

    I want you to formulate FOUR PRACTICAL Knowledge Questions (aka CASE STUDY QUESTIONS) with it'sANSWERS from this given Research paper that I can use in my Presentation. Topic of the Research Paper: Mechanism of Hypertension and it's therapy targets For Instance: Case #1. You are seeing a 60-year-old man for the first time. He has untreated hypertension (168/106 mm Hg and blood pressure has been elevated on at least 3 occasions). There is currently no evidence of target organ dysfunction...

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