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compare and contrast from the two perspective being the conflict theory and functionalist theoretical perspective and use examples from south Africa during the current covid-19 pandemic to support the argument NB: can it please be in an essay form

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Functionalist Perspective


The functionalist perspective is based largely on the works of Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton. According to functionalism, society is a system of


interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and social


equilibrium for the whole. For example, each of the social institutions contributes important


functions for society: Family provides a context for reproducing, nurturing, and socializing


children; education offers a way to transmit a society’s skills, knowledge, and culture to its youth; politics provides a means of governing members of society; economics provides for the


production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services; and religion provides moral


guidance and an outlet for worship of a higher power.


The functionalist perspective emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by focusing


on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts.Functionalists use the terms functional and dysfunctional to describe the effects of social


elements on society. Elements of society are functional if they contribute to social stability and


dysfunctional if they disrupt social stability. Some aspects of society can be both functional and


dysfunctional. For example, covid-19 is dysfunctional in that it is associated with loss of property, and fear. But according to Durkheim and other functionalists, covid-19 is has been functional for society because it leads to heightened awareness of shared moral bonds and


increased social cohesion.


Conflict Perspective


The functionalist perspective views society as composed of different parts working together. In


contrast, the conflict perspective views society as composed of different groups and interest


competing for power and resources. The conflict perspective explains various aspects of our


social world by looking at which groups have power and benefit from a particular social


arrangement. For example, feminist theory argues that we live in a patriarchal society a


hierarchical system of organization controlled by men. Although there are many varieties of


feminist theory, most would hold that feminism “demands that existing economic, political, and


social structures be changed.

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