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BIO 2710 Learning Objectives Chapters 15 and Chapter 17 1mmunization and Diagnostics Immunization...

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BIO 2710 Learning Objectives Chapters 15 and Chapter 17 1mmunization and Diagnostics Immunization 1. Understand why vaccines
BIO 2710 Learning Objectives Chapters 15 and Chapter 17 1mmunization and Diagnostics Immunization 1. Understand why vaccines are needed for some diseases 2. Understand how a vaccine works 3. Know why boosters are needed for some vaccines 4. Compare and contrast the following types of vaccines attenuated, inactivated, toxoid, subunit conjugated and DNA vaccines 5. Know examples of each killed, attenuated, subunit and conjugated of vaccines 6. Compare and contrast live and killed vaccines 7. Know the role of adjuvants in vaccines 8. Understand the risks of vaccines and why some people are overestimating the risks and underestimating the benefits of vaccines Diagnostics Understand the difference between the three basic ways of identifying Microbes 1. a. Culture based (phenotypic) b. Immunological (antigen) c. Genetic (nucleic acids) 2. Understand why specimen sampling should focus on the infected site 3. Know that culture testing includes isolation, microscopy, biochemical tests and dichotomous keys Know the basic types of nucleic acid tests (usually DNA) and know which can be culture independent 4. a. Hybridization b. PCR (DNA or RNA Aplification) c. Sequencing d. FISH (Flourscent in situ hybridization) Know the basic types of Immunologic detection 5. a. Agglutination and precipitation b. Fluorescent antibody microscopy c. Immunoassays d. ELISA e. skin test example TB faster an thngen.
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Hi, as per our regulation the first question is solved. In this case the questions in the immunisation section are solved.

  1. Vaccines are needed as preventive measure for future possible infections. Some of the disease ar caused by bacteria or viruses. Vaccines can be generated against these pathogens and given toteh patients. All disease cannot be cured by vaccines due to difference in pathogens characters, location inside the body...etc.
  2. vaccines work by increasing the immunity of the body. Usually vaccines are weakened pathogens. They can stimulate the body immune cells thus activity as immunogens. They cannot cause full blown diseases. The immune cells produce antibodies against the weakened pathogens in the vaccine and these antibodies are stored and used in future possible infection by the same pathogen.
  3. Boosted are given to patients after the initial immunisation. Boosted doses help to increase the antibodies to protective level. It helps to counter the decline in immune cell preparedness with time.
  4. Type fo vaccine: A). Attenuated: it is a weakened form of the pathogen. Patients do not show full blown symptoms but some immunocompromised pertinent may catch the diseases. The patients must be kept under surveillance after the live attenuated vaccine injection. B) Inactivated : these are the killed version of the pathogen. Several boosters are needed to increase the immunity. C) toxoid: here, the vaccine uses a toxin produced by the pathogen, instead of the whole pathogen. The immunity is developed specifically avians the toxoid. D) Conjugate: these vaccines use a specific piece of the pathogen. Subunit can be capsid, proteins, sugar component .etc. It is highly effective and strong immune response can be generated. E) DNA vaccine: genetically modified vector containing specific gene of the pathogen. It is highly targeted and long lasting immune response can be generated. Direct nucleic acid is invested rather than protein or capsid.
  5. Examples: live attenuated- measles, rotavirus... inactivated- hepatitisA, flu. Subunit conjugate- hiparitisB, HPV, pneumonia. Toxoid- diphtheria, tetanus.
  6. Live and killed vaccines: comparison- live and killed vaccine both contain the pathogens. Oath can trigger immune response and can show some symptoms. Both are obtained from naturally occurring pathogens and no genetic modifications are done. Contrast- live vaccine contains live but weaker pathogens, the killed vaccine contained dead pathogens. The live vaccine produces stronger immune response than the dead vaccine. Live vaccine needs medicinal supervision after the injection since live pathogen is given to the patient. Dead vaccines need several boosters to increase the immune response.
  7. Adjuvants: It is a component of vaccine which is formulated to enhance net ability of vaccine to produce strong immune response. most common adjuvants are aluminium hydroxide and paraffin oil.
  8. Risks of vaccine: vaccine can induce symptoms of disease which can be painful and require medial assistance. Vaccines given to immunonocompromised patients will result in over stimulation of immune response. If vaccine dose is not enough, it may result in understimulatoin defeating the purpose of vaccination.
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