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3. What are the “translator” molecules that recognize a codon in the mRNA and deliver the correct amino acid?
6. If each amino acid was encoded by a single codon, what is the minimum number of amino-acyl tRNA synthetases required for translation?
7. Looking at the codon table, if there was a unique aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase required for each anticodon, what is the minimum required?
9. If an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognized any nucleotide (purine or pyrimidine) in the 5’end of the anticodon, give the codons (denote the 3rd position with X) and the amino acid that could be loaded unambiguously. Is that sufficient to load all?
10. If some aminoacyl tRNA synthetases recognize if a nucleotide is a purine (Pu)or a pyrimidine (Py) in the 5’end of the anticodon, give the codons (denote the 3rd position with Pu or Py) and the amino acid that could be loaded unambiguously.
11. From the answers to Questions 9,10 and 11 what is the minimum number of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases required to load all the tRNA molecules with the correct amino acid?
12. In what compartment of the cell does polypeptide synthesis originate for translation of mRNA transcribed from nuclear genes?
13. What two macromolecular groups comprise components of the large and small ribosomal subunits?
14. What two macromolecular groups comprise components of the large and small ribosomal subunits?
15. Where are the macromolecular components of the ribosome synthesized in a eukaryotic cell? Where are they assembled into large and small subunits?
16. What are the A, P and E sites on a ribosome and what is their roles in polypeptide synthesis?
17. Detail the steps required for the initiation of translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells.
18. The codon for the start of polypeptide synthesis is 5’-AUG-3’. What is the nucleotide sequence of the anticodon found in the tRNA? Indicate the orientation.
19. What nucleotide triphosphate is responsible for the ribosome subunit assembly on the mRNA, specificity of amino acyl-tRNA selection and movement of the ribosome in relation to the mRNA sequence?
20. The energy for peptide bond formation is directly derived from what source?
To what category of macromolecules do releasing factors belong?
3. The translator molecules are called tRNA which deliver the anticodons for the right codon present on the mRNA. These tRNA molecules are specific are each amino acid and also there exists wobble base pairing among the anti-codons.
6. The answer is 20, one for each amino acid.
7. There would total of 61 unique aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase for each amino acid. Total of 64 codons, out of which three are stop codons.
12. The mRNA originates from nucleus and moves into the cytoplasm where the translation happens.
13. The small and large ribosomal subunits are made of two macromolecular components namely rRNA and proteins
15. Ribosomal proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the nucleus for subassembly in the nucleolus. The subunits are then returned to the cytoplasm for final assembly.
16. The three operational or binding SITES are A, P and E reading from the mRNA entry site. Sites A and P span both the ribosome sub-units with a larger part residing in the ribosome large sub-unit and a smaller part in the smaller sub-unit. Site E, the exit site, resides in the large ribosome sub-unit.
17. The initiation of protein synthesis occurs by combination of mRNA, tRNA for a specific amino acid binding to the ribosome. The mRNA strand remains continuous, but the true initiation point is the start codon, AUG.
The eukaryotic initiation is divided into 8 steps:
18. The anticodon for the start codon will be 5'---CAU---3'
19. The energy for the process during ribosome assembly, specificity, and movement of ribosome is from hydrolysis of GTP.
20. The energy for the peptide bond formation is derived from the condensation reaction between NH2 and COOH group of respective amino acids.
Releasing factors are made up of proteins.
3. What are the “translator” molecules that recognize a codon in the mRNA and deliver the correct...
Class 13 Translation DTL 1. Draw a line representing mRNA that has already been processes (introns removed, cap and tail added). Label the 5' cap on left end and polyA tail. 2. An inch from the left add the start codon (AUG). 3. An inch from the right add one of the three stop codons. 4. Label the 5'UTR and 3 UTR (untranslated regions). 5. In the middle of your mRNA, draw two ovals representing the large and small subunits...
Please explain Why is a cap added to MRNA, but not to 1RNA or RRNA? Each of the three types of RNA are transcribed by different RNA polymerases. Only RNA polymerase II, involved in mRNA synthesis, contains a domain capable of interacting with enzymes that form the cap. Transcription and processing of MRNA occur in the nucleus, where cap binding proteins are found. These proteins, which add and modify the cap, are not found in the cytoplasm, where tRNA and...
k. Define: codon, anti-codon, transcription, translation, redundancy 1. Is it the case that a small change in DNA will always impact the protein? Explain. m. What mechanism is in place that ensures the right amino acid is added to the polypeptide? (Think codon-anticodon interaction) n. What happens if the tRNA enters the ribosome and the codon and anticodon do not match up?
1. What are the four roles that DNA must play in cells? How is the structure of DNA consistent with these roles?2. Match the terms with the most suitable description._____ X-rays a. parts of mature mRNA transcript_____ chain elongation b. base triplet for amino acid_____ exons c. second stage of translation_____ genetic code d. base triplet that pairs with codon_____ anticodon e. one environmental agent that induces mutations in DNA_____ intron f. set of 64 codons for mRNA_____ codon g....
DNA, Genes and Protein Synthesis Activity 13: Protein Synthesis is the process by which cells produce (synthesize) proteins. An overview of the process is shown in model 2 (below). Gone 2 Gene 1 Gene 3 DNA strand3 TRANSLATION Protein Trp Gly Model 2 ACTIVITY and QUESTIONS 1. Based on the information you can gather from model 1 complete the following sentences: a. The nucleotide Adenine (A) always pairs with the nucleotide b. The nucleotide Guanine (G) always pairs with the...
C++: Translating mRNA sequence help Homework Description Codon 1 You are working in a bioinformatics lab studying messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. mRNA is a sequence of the nucleotide bases (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil) that conveys information stored in DNA to Ribosomes for translation into proteins. The bases in the sequences are denoted by the first letters of the nucleotide bases (e.g. A, C, G, and U). A sequence of mRNA is made up of hundres to thousands of nucleotide...
30) The organelle that performs the process of translation has room for thre mRNA/ rRNA/ tRNA) molecules. Except for the molecule carrying the very first amino acid, all enter this organelle at the site. The movement of the ribosome with respect to the mRNA is (translation/ translocation), and it occurs each time a known as new amino acid is added to the polypeptide chain, in other words, during the cycle of the ribosome. This movement is powered by the ATP/...
What are the three functional groups that comprise a nucleotide? What do nucleotides have in common with amino acids or simple sugars? When the structure of DNA was first elucidated, many biologists quickly saw how this structure explained the passage of information from one generation to another. How does the structure of DNA explain generation-to-generation flow of information? In other words, give a brief description of the structure of DNA and tell how this structure allows for replication. Which of...
Assume that an E. coli cell translates the mRNA sequence (5)AUGGGUCGUGAGUCAUCGUUAAUUGUAGCUGGAGGGGAGGAAUGA(3') using the minimum number of tRNAs. If the mRNA sequence is translated into a fourteen amino acid peptide (starting at first 5 nucleotide), which of the following statements are true? Refer to the Codon Table and the table of "wobble rules" in the Hint. Gly, Glu, and Ser are repeated in the sequence and each uses multiple codons. Wobble rules allow Glu and Ser to use one tRNA each...
Please help with 4-10! DNA, Genes,and Protein Synthesis Activity 13: 2. The bases that interact with each other are called complementary bases. this definition and your answers to 1 complete the following: a. Thiamine (T) is the complementary base of b. Cytosine (C) is the complementary base of c. Adenine (A) is the complementary base of d. Guanine (G) is the complementary base of Based on 3. Shown below is the nucleotide sequence for one strand of a stretch of...