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A) How AND WHY a virtue ethicist uses the principle of acting for the sake of virtue in general a...

a) How AND WHY a virtue ethicist uses the principle of acting for the sake of virtue in general as its test for permissibility;

b) Specific examples of how the principle of acting for the sake of virtue is used in a case

a) How AND WHY a Utilitarian uses the Greatest Happiness Principle (BOTH Act and Rule Utilitarianism) in general as its test for permissibility;

b) Specific examples of how the Greatest Happiness Principle is used in a case

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Virtue ethics

a) Virtue ethicists use the principle of acting as its test of permissibility by justifying that a right action is one that a virtuous person  would have done in a similar circumstance. Virtue ethics presupposes that only persons with virtues can perform ethical acts. These virtues are cultivated as habitual actions and becomes yeh character of the person over a period of time.

b) Example of virtue ethics on the principle of acting:

Whistleblowers in a organisation who will raise issues when they observe some wrongdoing or illegal activities are said to be practicing virtue ethics. The act of raising the issue may put their own jobs or personal advancements at risks. Yet, they go ahead with courage and honesty to expose the wrongdoing, demonstrating the virtues and moral character they have inculcated into their lives as a habit.

Utilitarian ethics

a) Utilitarians use the greatest happiness principle as a test for permissibility by justifying that just actions resulting in utility do not imply moral actions. Utility must be maximised and pain must be minimised by those actions. This principle is applied by measuring the outcomes of the actions and judging if they have benefited and are preferred by a majority of the people.

b) Example of greater happiness principle applied to utilitarian ethics:

The construction of a large dam over a river will displace thousands of people living in villages that will get submerged by the backwaters of the reservoir. But when the dam is completed, it will irrigate millions of acres of farm land, provide clean renewable source electricity for millions and store enough water to meet the demand during droughts. Here the action or decision to construct the dam is based on utilitarian ethics. Even though there will be pain for a few due to the construction of the d1m, a greater number of people will be happy when the dam is completed and fully functioning,

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