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Please help edit and ADD to the provided Literature Review Outline. If you use anything from another source be sure to include the citation and reference at the end.

Literature Review Outline

  1. According to the Center of Disease Control (CDC) by improving the way opioids are prescribed through clinical practice guidelines can ensure patients have access to safer, more effective chronic pain treatment while reducing the risk of opioid use disorder, overdose, and death. More than 11.5 million Americans, aged 12 or older, reported misusing prescription opioids in 2016.However, an estimated 11% of adults experience daily pain. There are millions of American treated with prescription opioids for chronic pain, most of which are cancer patients (CDC, 2016).
  1. In 2018, an estimated 1,735,350 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States.
  2. Pain occurs in 20% to 50% of patients with cancer. Roughly 80% of patients with advanced-stage cancer have moderate to severe pain (NIH, 2019).
  1. New restrictions for prescribing opioid-based painkillers are being proposed by federal and state lawmakers to address the abuse of these drugs. This presents new challenges for cancer patients who have finished treatment but often still have pain. Regulations designed to curb opioid abuse and addiction should "largely exempt cancer patients," according to a policy statement from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO, 2017). Characterizing cancer patients as a "special population," ASCO said a broad exemption from regulations that limit access to or doses of prescription opioids is justified because of the "unique nature of their disease, its treatment, and potentially life-long adverse health effects from having had cancer." That principle and others in the policy statement provide guidance to "balance the public health concerns regarding abuse and misuse of prescription opioids with the need to ensure access to appropriate pain management for cancer patients and survivors. In announcing the policy statement, ASCO officials expressed the organization's support for federal efforts to prevent prescription drug abuse but also expressed a commitment to protect cancer patients' access to "appropriate medical opioid therapy” (ASCO, 2017). The CDC has also stated that the guideline focus is on "the use of opioids in treating chronic pain ... outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care” (CDC, 2019).
  1. With the number of cancer survivors increasing every year, these restrictions raise the possibility that many people with cancer-related pain could be denied access to adequate pain control.  
  2. Cancer survivors need access to painkillers; studies show that up to 40% may experience pain at some point. Physicians musts adjusting their practices to follow the new recommendations while ensuring their patients are able to control their pain safely.
  3. Protecting Access to Treatment for Cancer-Related Pain" incorporated the following principles:
  1. Healthcare provider access to a choice of materials on prescribing education that is "evidence based and tailored by specialty.
  2. No prescription limits that would "artificially impede access to medically necessary treatment for patients with cancer.
  3. Patient education emphasizing safe use, storage, and disposal of prescription pain medication.
  4. Allowances in prescription drug monitoring programs for providers who treat cancer-related pain and "may prescribe relatively large numbers of opioids or provide multiple controlled drugs at relatively high doses.
  5. Appropriate patient screening and assessment before and during opioid treatment, although the use of compliance tools should not be mandated for all patients who receive opioids.
  6. Most deaths related to opioids are seen in the noncancer community. Usually, the person abusing the drug is not even the person for whom the medication was prescribed. The drugs were stolen or borrowed from the patient, or willingly shared or sold by the patient.
  1. Opioid stigma is keeping cancer patients from receiving proper pain management. The medications used to treat moderate to severe pain among people with cancer are the same opioids helping fuel today’s opioid crisis. Though it has turned a much-needed spotlight on the over prescription of these medications, it is overshadowing their under prescription among people who really need them, especially those with cancer.
  1. Two-thirds of individuals with metastatic cancer and more than half of those being treated for cancer report experiencing chronic painand 1 in 3 cancer patients do not receive medication intensity oftheir pain (ACS, 2016).
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Answer: Improving the ways according to the CDC of prescribing opioids through the clinical practice guidelines could help patient that they are availing better pain treatment which is also safe for them. This also reduces the risk of the overdose as well as death. In one of the report it has been found that more than 11.5 million Americans misuse prescription for the opioids. Opioids are generally used in the treatment of the chronic pain.

During the chemotherapy as well as treatment of the cancer, patient under goes with the extreme pain, and with the number of cancer survivors increasing every year, these restrictions raise the possibility that many people with cancer-related pain could be denied access to adequate pain control. Protecting Access to Treatment for Cancer-Related Pain" incorporated the following principles:

  • Healthcare professionals should prescribe medicine on the basis of evidence based practice.
  • No prescription limits that would "artificially impede access to medically necessary treatment for patients with cancer.
  • Patient should be educated regarding the safe disposal, use of the pain killers.
  • There should be appropriate clinical assessment regarding pain and the treatment.
  • Mostly the death occurred due to opioids in people who have been not prescribed pain treatment medication.
  • The medications used to treat moderate to severe pain among people with cancer are the same opioids helping fuel today’s opioid crisis.

Two-thirds of individuals with metastatic cancer and more than half of those being treated for cancer report experiencing chronic painand 1 in 3 cancer patients do not receive medication intensity oftheir pain (ACS, 2016).

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