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• ### 2. Let n be a positive integer. Denote the number of positive integers less than n and rela- tive...

number thoery just need 2 answered 2. Let n be a positive integer. Denote the number of positive integers less than n and rela- tively prime to n by p(n). Let a, b be positive integers such that ged(a,n) god(b,n)-1 Consider the set s, = {(a), (ba), (ba), ) (see Prollern 1). Let s-A]. Show that slp(n). 1. Let a, b, c, and n be positive integers such that gcd(a, n) = gcd(b, n) = gcd(c, n) = 1 If...

• ### Given algorithm- procedure factorial (n: nonnegative integer) if n = 0 then return 1 else return...

Given algorithm- procedure factorial (n: nonnegative integer) if n = 0 then return 1 else return n*factorial(n-1) {output is n!} Trace the above algorithm when it is given n = 7 as input. That is, show all steps used by above algorithm to find 7!

• ### For an integer n > 0, consider the positive integer F. = 22 +1. (a) Use...

For an integer n > 0, consider the positive integer F. = 22 +1. (a) Use induction to prove that F. ends in digit 7 whenever n 2 is an integer (b) Use induction to prove that F= 2 + IT- Fholds for all neN. (c) Use (b) to prove that ged(F, F.) = 1 holds for all distinct nonnegative integers m, na (d) Use (e) to give a quick proof that there must be infinitely many primes! That is...

• ### Problem 4. Let w be a positive continuous function and let n be a nonnegative integer....

Problem 4. Let w be a positive continuous function and let n be a nonnegative integer. Equip P.(R) with the inner product (p,q) = \$' p(x)q(x)"(x) dx. You do not need to check that this is an inner product. (a) Prove that P.(R) has an orthonormal basis po..., Pr such that deg pk = k for each k. (b) Show that (Pk, pk) = 0 for each k, where the polynomials pį are from the preceding part. Here pé denotes...

• ### 1. [10 marks] Modular Arithmetic. The Quotient-Remainder theorem states that given any integer n and a positive integer...

1. [10 marks] Modular Arithmetic. The Quotient-Remainder theorem states that given any integer n and a positive integer d there exist unique integers q and r such that n = dq + r and 0 r< d. We define the mod function as follows: (, r r>n = qd+r^0<r< d) Vn,d E Z d0 Z n mod d That is, n mod d is the remainder of n after division by d (a) Translate the following statement into predicate logic:...

• ### Let n be a positive integer, and let s and t be integers. Then the following...

Let n be a positive integer, and let s and t be integers. Then the following hold. I need the prove for (iii) Lemma 8.1 Let n be a positive integer, and let s and t be integers. Then the following hold. (i) We have s et mod n if and only if n dividest - s. (ii) We have pris + t) = Hn (s) +Mn(t) mod n. (iii) We have Hr(st) = Hn (3) Men(t) mod n. Proof....

• ### 8. [10 points) Consider the following algorithm procedure Algorithm(: integer, n: positive integer; 81,...a s integers with vhilei<r print (l, r, mı, arn, 》 if z > am then 1:= m + 1 if za...

8. [10 points) Consider the following algorithm procedure Algorithm(: integer, n: positive integer; 81,...a s integers with vhilei<r print (l, r, mı, arn, 》 if z > am then 1:= m + 1 if za then anstwer-1 return answer 18 and the (a) Assume that this algorithm receives as input the numbersz-32 and corresponding sequence of integers 2 | 3 1 1 4151617| 8| 9 | 10 İ 11 İ 12 | 13 | 14|15 | 16 | 17 |...

• ### Let n be a nonnegative integer and let F 22 + 1 be a Fermat number. Prove that if is a prime nu...

Let n be a nonnegative integer and let F 22 + 1 be a Fermat number. Prove that if is a prime number, then either n=0 or 3--1mod F. [Hint: If n 2 1, use the law of quadratic reciprocity to evaluate the Legendre symbol (3/F). Now use Euler's Criterion (Theorem 4.4).] Let n be a nonnegative integer and let F 22 + 1 be a Fermat number. Prove that if is a prime number, then either n=0 or 3--1mod...

• ### * (9) Let n be a positive integer. Define : Z → Zn by (k) =...

* (9) Let n be a positive integer. Define : Z → Zn by (k) = [k]. (a) Show that is a homomorphism. (b) Find Ker(6) and Im(). yrcises (c) To what familiar group is the quotient group Z/nZ isomorphic? Explain.

• ### Problem 3. Let X and Y be two independent random variables taking nonnegative integer values (a)...

Problem 3. Let X and Y be two independent random variables taking nonnegative integer values (a) Prove that for any nonnegative integer m 7m k=0 b) Suppose that X~ B (n, p) and Y ~ B(m. p), and X, Y are independent. What is the distribution of the random variable Z X + Y? (c) Prove the following formula for binomial coefficients: n\ _n + m for kmin (m, n) (d) Let X ~ B (n, 1/2). What is P...