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Introduction: A manufacturing company that possesses many complexities can be highly challenged when maintaining production goals...

Introduction:

A manufacturing company that possesses many complexities can be highly challenged when maintaining production goals and standards in conjunction with a major organizational change. Garment manufacturing is a complex industry for many reasons. The product line is a complex array of styles, seasons, varying life cycles and multidimensional sizing. Many sewn product firms are viewing TQM as the appropriate strategy to meet the double demand of competition and quality; however, many companies are finding sustaining their TQM adoption decision very difficult. Additionally, TQM’s contribution to a competitive advantage remains unexamined with the context of Management and organizational development research. It can accurately be described as a philosophy about quality that suggest for involving everyone in the organization in a quest for quality. It extends to suppliers as well as to customers.

In fact, in TQM, the customer is the focal point, as the business is driven by customers. As such, customer’s satisfaction is the main driving force. Everyone in the organization, from the top most chief executive, up to the bottom most workers, has to take part in this venture. Achieving world class quality is not just another program; it is an ongoing process. An organization uses TQM as a long term approach to achieving customer satisfaction. Total Quality Management requires all employees of the organization for improving the products, processes and services. TQM focuses on long-term success through identifying and prioritizing customer requirements, setting and aligning goals, and providing deliverables that warrant customer satisfaction (as well as customer delight). However, the main theme of the research is how to improve quality of a garment industry by implementing TQM in practice, which is a real challenge. TQM applications vary widely with product category, organizational settings, management philosophies and practices and so on. This involves three spheres of changes in an organization- people, technology and structure.

Research Objectives:

Main objectives of this study are as follows-


v To find out the basic pillars which are required for implementing TQM in Garments industries.


v To improve productivity and product quality.

vTo improve the quality of garment industry of Bangladesh by implementing TQM approach.

Working Methodology:

We divide our working methodology for this study into three major steps-

  1. Literature review has been conducted to identify the pillars required to implement TQM in practice. Articles that are related with TQM are reviewed to find out TQM framework. 

  2. A thorough study has been done to analyze the present condition of product quality. (Defining the Defects Name, Data Collection to find the Frequency of defects, Analysis with TQM tools). Primary data has been collected from various factories according to TQM framework. Collected data has been analyzed. Primary data has been collected through observation method as it was apparent that most of people who work in this industry are not aware about TQM techniques rather they are implementing those as a practice.
  3. And finally by implementing Total Quality Management Approach (TQM Approach) in garments industry to analyze the improvement of product quality and productivity. 


Defining Quality:

The definition of quality depends on the role of the people defining it. Most consumers have a difficult time defining quality, but they know it when they see it. The difficulty in defining quality exists regardless of product and this is true for both manufacturing and service organizations. Think about how difficult it may be to define quality for services such as airline services, child day-care facilities, college classes, or even OM textbooks. Further complicating the issue is that the meaning of quality has changed over time. Today, there is no single universal definition of quality. Some people view quality as “performance to standards.” Others view it as “meeting the customer’s needs” or “satisfying the customer.” Let’s look at some of the more common definitions of quality.

The Plan–Do–Study–Act Cycle

The plan–do–study–act (PDSA) cycle describes the activities a company needs to perform in order to incorporate continuous improvement in its operation. This cycle, shown in the following Figure, is also referred to as the Shewhart cycle or the Deming wheel. The circular nature of this cycle shows that continuous improvement is a never-ending process.

Quality Tools:

TQM places a great deal of responsibility on all workers. If employees are to identify and correct quality problems, they need proper training. They need to understand how to assess quality by using a variety of quality control tools, how to interpret findings, and how to correct problems. In this section we look at seven different quality tools. These are often called the seven tools of quality control and are shown in the following figure. They are easy to understand, yet extremely useful in identifying and analyzing quality problems. Sometimes workers use only one tool at a time, but often a combination of tools is most helpful.

Pillars of TQM Implementation:

The definition of TQM may sound simple, but the implementation of it in practice requires an organizational culture and climate. It takes time and patience to complete the process. The process does not occur overnight, the results may not see for a long period of time. Some experts say that it takes up to ten years to fully realize the results of implementing quality management. There are several steps that must be taken in the process of shifting to quality management in an organization.

According to Jablonski- he identified six attributes for successful implementation of TQM program. Those are: Customer focus, Process focus, Prevention verses inspection, Employee empowerment and compensation, Fact-based decision making, Receptiveness to feedback.

Cost of Quality:

The reason quality has gained such prominence is that organizations have gained an understanding of the high cost of poor quality. Quality affects all aspects of the organization and has dramatic cost implications. The most obvious consequence occurs when poor quality creates dissatisfied customers and eventually leads to loss of business. However, quality has many other costs, which can be divided into two categories. The first category consists of costs necessary for achieving high quality, which are called quality control costs. These are of two types: prevention costs and appraisal costs. The second category consists of the cost consequences of poor quality, which are called quality failure costs. These include external failure costs and internal failure costs.

Sampling Plans and Acceptable Quality Level:

Today, in order to produce which are as little defective as possible, statistical process control methods are being used. Nevertheless, no matter how effective these methods are, it is inevitable that a small amount of defective production will occur. Therefore, enterprises should seek to accomplish the following:

v to inspect the work done at the end of production;

  • v to prevent defective products from reaching other organizations and 
customers, and 

  • v to check whether the raw, semi-raw and finished products received 
from other organizations under particular contracts are in accordance with those contracts.

  1. Collection and Analysis:

The check sheet also called a ‘Defect Concentration Diagram’ is basically a data collection sheet. By using check sheet we have collect the frequency of defect. The entire defect is not occurred in same frequency, some defect is appearing very frequently and some is in less frequent. For analyzing purpose we have collected Defect Name and Defect Qty from garments section of a renowned garments industry that is Ananta Apparels Ltd, Bangladesh.

Why TQM Efforts Fail:

From the above discussion we found that we can get so many benefits through implementing TQM in our workplace. Yet there are still many companies that attempt a variety of quality improvement efforts and find that they have not achieved any or most of the expected outcomes. The most important factor in the success or failure of TQM efforts is the genuineness of the organization’s commitment. Often companies look at TQM as another business change that must be implemented due to market pressure without really changing the values of their organization. Recall that TQM is a complete philosophy that has to be embraced with true belief, not mere lip service. Looking at TQM as a short-term financial investment is a sure recipe for failure. Another mistake is the view that the responsibility for quality and elimination of waste lies with employees other than top management. It is a “let the workers do it” mentality. A third common mistake is over- or under- reliance on statistical process control (SPC) methods. SPC is not a substitute for continuous improvement, teamwork, and a change in the organization’s belief system. However, SPC is a necessary tool for identifying quality problems. Some common causes for TQM failure are

§ Lack of a genuine quality culture
§ Lack of top management support and commitment
§ Over- and under-reliance on statistical process control (SPC) methods

Companies that have attained the benefits of TQM have created a quality culture. These companies have developed processes for identifying customer-defined quality. In addition, they have a systematic method for listening to their customers, collecting and analyzing data pertaining to customer problems, and making changes based on customer feedback. You can see that in these companies there is a systematic process for prioritizing the customer needs that encompass the entire organization.

Conclusion: 
TQM has no specific destination and its changing limit is also endless. Organizations always try to improve as well as different techniques and tools are invented parallel customer expectation are enhanced. So definition of quality is always evolving. With the intensifying competition, and putting the concept of ‘total quality’ into practice, it appears that firms which function according to the concept of ‘acceptable quality level’ (AQL) 
have no other choice but to adopt a ‘zero defect’ (ZD) policy. The perception of AQL is replaced by the perception of ‘100% quality’ or zero defect. In the past, customers would accept goods with 1%, 2%, or even 5% defects; today they satisfy their needs with companies whose production error levels are measured in ppm (parts per million), ppb (parts per billion) or ultimately ZD. To guarantee 100% quality through examination is impossible.

In present world where competition is at the highest level, enterprises that can produce accumulated technological knowledge and can make their production flexible while considering the market variability, gain very high competitive power by providing their customers with products of higher quality, which are appropriate to standards, and are available at lower prices. Thus, enterprises should do the following to increase their competitive power: establish closer relations with their customers, meet their expectations of production quantity and time, assess complaints, observations and satisfactions separately, ensure continuity in their development by comparing their products with others’, and direct upcoming work on the basis of the market information which they have analyzed.

  1. Discuss five key areas in the two papers which were identified as specific problems in TQM and Lean Sixsigma to the case study organisations.   (20 Marks)                                                                                                                                             
  2. Examine two strengths and three weaknesses of the research methodologies (Research approach, design, sampling technique, data analysis tools etc.) used by both papers relative to the case study organisation in TQM and Lean Sixsigma. (30 Marks)                                                                  
  3. Evaluate five gaps identified in the literatures reviewed and justify how these gaps were addressed relative to improving the products and processes of the case study organisations.                                                                                                 (20 Marks)
  4. Discuss five key findings of any of the papers, support these findings with current literatures and justify how these findings can improve TQM and Lean Sixsigma practices.             
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Answer #1

Answer a) :

Common causes for TQM failure are

  • Lack of a genuine quality culture
  • Lack of top management support and commitment
  • Over-and under-dependence on measurable procedure control (SPC) strategies

TQM has no particular goal and its changing breaking point is additionally interminable. Associations consistently attempt to improve just as various procedures and instruments are developed equal client desire are upgraded

Answer b) :

Working Methodology:

Working technique for this examination into three significant advances :

1. Writing audit has been led to distinguish the columns required to execute TQM by and by. Articles that are connected with TQM are checked on to discover TQM system.

2. An exhaustive report has been done to break down the current state of item quality. (Characterizing the Defects Name, Data Collection to discover the Frequency of deformities, Analysis with TQM devices). Essential information has been gathered from different manufacturing plants as per TQM system. Gathered information has been investigated. Essential information has been gathered through perception strategy as it was clear that the majority of individuals who work in this industry don't know about TQM strategies rather they are actualizing those as a training.

3. Lastly by actualizing Total Quality Management Approach (TQM Approach) in pieces of clothing industry to break down the improvement of item quality and efficiency.

Strengths :

TQM puts a lot of duty on all specialists. On the off chance that representatives are to distinguish and address quality issues, they need appropriate preparing. They have to see how to evaluate quality by utilizing an assortment of value control instruments, how to decipher discoveries, and how to address issues.

Procedures and items ought to persistently be improved. There is no limit to the improvement procedure. This is valid for even the most elite organizations. All out quality administration never closes

Organizations that have achieved the advantages of TQM have made a quality culture. These organizations have created forms for distinguishing client characterized quality. What's more, they have a deliberate technique for tuning in to their clients, gathering and dissecting information relating to client issues, and making changes dependent on client criticism.

Weakness :

The meaning of TQM may sound basic, yet its execution practically speaking requires a hierarchical culture and atmosphere. It requires some investment and persistence to finish the procedure. The procedure doesn't happen for the time being, the outcomes may not see for a significant stretch of time. A few specialists state that it takes as long as ten years to completely understand the aftereffects of executing quality administration. There are a few stages that must be taken during the time spent moving to quality administration in an association

Answer c) :

Gaps

Recommendationsn to the companies

  1. Preparing to comprehend TQM and upgrade duty all through the association.
  2. Building proficient gracefully chain Management with joint efforts of provider and other market go-betweens.
  3. Set up proficient correspondence chain for stream of data with the assistance of data innovation
  4. Give appropriate inspiration to the provider and client.

Answer d) :

Findings(Framework for Lean SixSigma and Knowledge Management to reduce Cost of Quality)

The poor KM contributes to Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) and that optimizing KM-that is, harnessing and integrating knowledge across boundaries can reduce COPQ, thereby leading to improved project performance from the overall project management perspective, increased customer satisfaction and improved industry reputationFound that KM had a positive impact in reducing these costs

If the organization effectively implements the proposed frame(PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR COQ REDUCTION), the following major benefits will be achieved.

  1. Prompt top management to take up improvement projects (rather than expressing data in technical terms like defect rates; monetary terms are more influential for top management.).
  2. Incorporate all the separate quality activities into an overarching quality system and monitor performance across the organization.
  3. Provide a communicating channel between line and top management
  4. Identify the need for action to decrease costs of poor quality
  5. Improve managerial planning, control and decision-making
  6. Identify, prioritize and select projects
  7. Contribute in financial benefits of process improvement.

From the literature review it is clear that Cost of Quality, Six Sigma Methodology, Lean and Knowledge Management are very important tools and are supportive to each other. However, when it comes to co-relation and integration of all these four important tools in the literature survey, we are finding about 30 percent co-relation only. It is clear from the literature survey that all these tools are very important and vital and so there is need for integrated approach of Six Sigma, lean, knowledge management and cost of quality.

Lean Six Sigma and Knowledge Management philosophies both are equally significant for Reduction in Cost of Quality and performance excellence in organizations. According to mentioned studies, utilizing powerful tools of KM have efficient influence on deployment and promotion of Six Sigma projects and its efficiency promotion. It is important to perform such activities that continuously strengthen the organization and gain the objective of performance excellence. Lean Six Sigma and Knowledge Management philosophies for high performance with the help of common enabler this is organizational culture

Findings (IMPLEMENTING TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN GARMENTS INDUSTRY)

The most significant factor in the achievement or disappointment of TQM endeavors is the validity of the association's dedication. Frequently organizations take a gander at TQM as another business change that must be actualized because of market pressure without truly changing the estimations of their association.

Another mix-up is the view that the obligation regarding quality and disposal of waste lies with workers other than top administration.

A third normal misstep is finished or underreliance on measurable procedure control (SPC) strategies. SPC is definitely not a substitute for consistent improvement, cooperation, and an adjustment in the association's conviction framework.

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