Discuss a method by which job analysis can be completed? Note the pros and cons

Discuss a method by which job analysis can be completed? Note the pros and cons

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Following are the Methods of Job Analysis-----------

1. Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and non-performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behaviour of an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviours that result in performance.


1.      First-hand information: With Direct Observation, the trained job analyst can obtain first-hand knowledge and information about the job being analyzed. Without any delays, the job analyst could find out anything that happens to the employee.

2.      Simple to use: No need further tools to collect data. Just you and your equipments to write/record the information.

3.      Verifies data from other sources: To clarify the existing data regarding the responsibilities, skills, scopes, etc toward the research subject. To confirm what the employee does against the existing information.

4.      Useful for manual and psycho-motor tasks: Observation method is beneficial for jobs that involve manual and psycho-motor tasks

disadvantages are:

1.      Time consuming: The job analyst could only observe when the employee is available to work. And the duration of observing merely depends on the schedule of the employee.

2.       May bias employee’s performance: When he is informed that a job analyst will come to observe, the employee will normally prepared all the best he can. He is trying to impress the job analyst, he will do things that he regularly does not. Well, this kind of behavior might happen although there are employees who are not bothered by the presence of a job analyst.

3.      Small sample size: The data collected is simply from the employee being observed. The job analyst cannot hope to get lots of data if he only has limited numbers of research subjects.

4.      Requires skilled observer: Every job analyst has his/her own way of observing the employee. Different job analyst think and interpret the findings in different ways

2. Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers.This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group.

-Incumbent describes work.
-Can yield data about cognitive and psychomotor processes difficult to observe.
-Qualitative data can be examined.
-Works well for jobs with long job cycles.


they can be very time-consuming: setting up, interviewing, transcribing, analysing, feedback, reporting.

they can be costly.

different interviewers may understand and transcribe interviews in different ways.

3. Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees.In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively communicate it to the staff that data collected will be used for their own good. It is very important to ensure them that it won’t be used against them in anyway. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human resources.
-Quick and easy to administer.
-Can get a large amount of information in a short time.
-Allows for employee participation.
-Does not require trained interviewer.
-Relatively less expensive.
-Quality of information related to the quality of the questionnaire.
-Must have high school reading and writing ability to complete one.
-Often needs follow-up interview or observation.
-May be difficult to construct.
-May have low response rate.
-Responses may be incomplete.
-Responses may be difficult to interpret (open-ended)

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