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By 1797, the United States had been mocked by the French (XYZ Affair), attacked repeatedly by the Barbary States, and bullied

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Answer #1

1) Option A

The US after its independence in the 1774 focused on the economy and it has signed 'Jay Treaty' with the Great Britain. France which has supported the US in its independence war didn't like that as Great Britain was its arch rival in European theater as well as in North America. Further, US refusal to honor debt obligations by France resulted in Quasi War. It ended the US-France alliance but also reduced attacks by French on US merchant ships.
The situation in Mediterranean was not also favorable for the US as Barbary states had been disruption US trade. They were asking tribute and used to capture the US merchant ships.
The US government in response to these situations re-established its navy and army and defeated Algiers while signed peace treaty with Morocco.

2) Option A

The European countries had colonies all over the world and the US was also a colony of European powers. However, unfair treatment resulted in the US independence in which it defeated the powerful Great Britain. Similarly, Spain was also a big power and almost whole South America was its colony. Those colonies began to revolt against the Spanish colonial rule and declared independence. Other European powers such as Portugal, Germany, Belgium were looking for the opportunity to grab those newly freed colonies.
The US President Monroe in that situation declared that Western Hemisphere is the 'US sphere of Influence'.
This is known as 'Monroe Doctrine' which also mentioned that it will not interfere in European politics and will not oppose existing colonies in the Latin America but would oppose of forming any new colonies.

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