Homework Help Question & Answers

Fatty Acid Metabolism. The reactions of the fatty acid spiral are shown below. Use the description...


Fatty Acid Metabolism. The reactions of the fatty acid spiral are shown below. Use the description on the left side of the pa
Initiation. The activation step of lipogenesis converts acetyl-CoA into acetyl-ACP and malonyl-ACP, both of which use a new c
. ATP Analysis. In metabolism, one of the most important goals is to produce energy. Energy production can be measured by how
Fatty Acid Metabolism. The reactions of the fatty acid spiral are shown below. Use the description on the left side of the page to classify the reactions and fill in the boxes on the right side of the page Activation Step. The activation of the fatty acid begins by the addition of CoA which will carry the fatty acid from the cytosol into the mitochondria. The product, which is a fatty acid with a CoA attached, is known as a fatty acyl-CoA "Acyl" is a general term used when the group attached to CoA is anything other than two carbons. This activation step is endergonic and requires 1 ATP molecule which is converted to 1 AMP molecule (2 phosphates are cleaved). This activation step is only performed once for each fatty acid, while steps 1-4 are repeatedly cycled to cleave two carbons from the fatty acid each cycle Activation Step Step . This is the beginning of the "spiral". You should be able to identify this metabolic reaction by comparing it to the reactions shown on the previous page. Try to classify it by noticing the changes from reactants to products. If you need a hint, recall your definitions of oxidation and reduction reactions Step 1 Classity Reaction Oxidation: increase C-O bonds OR decrease C-H bonds . Reduction: decrease C-O bonds OR increase C-H bonds Since this is an oxidation reduction reaction, a cofactor is required and the type of oxidation will help you identify the proper cofactor Step 2. This common metabolic reaction was NOT shown on the previous page. Don't make the mistake of classifying this as an oxidation or a reduction. It may look like an oxidation because there is a new C-O bond, but there an "H" and an "OH is added In this type of reaction, a cofactor is typically not necessary, but you must add a compound to provide the "H" and the "OH Sep 2 Classify Readtion Step 3. This is another metabolic reaction that you should be able to identify by comparing it to the reactions on the previous page Again, by comparing the reactant and the product and you should note that an alcohol converts to a ketone. Note that this reaction produces the second cofactor that can be used to produce ATP Step 3 Classify Reacton Step 4. The last reaction is not a typical metabolic reaction and is a classified as a cleavage reaction. This step requires an extra Co- A as a cofactor and the reaction breaks our substrate into two separate products. The product on the right, acetyl-CoA, continues to stage 3 of metabolism (the citric acid cycle). The product on the left, fatty acyl-CoA is two carbons shorter than the starting molecule. This metabolic process is known as a "spiral" because this molecule proceeds to step 1 again to cleave off two more carbons. More specifically in this example, the fatty acyl-CoA at the bottom of the page will go through the fatty acid spiral 2 more times producing 3 acetyl-CoA molecules 2. Lipogenesis. The reactions of the lipogenesis are shown below. Use the description on the left side of the Step 4 Classity Reaction: S-COA faty acyl-CoA acetyl-CoA page to classify the reactions and fill in the boxes on the right side of the page -78-
Initiation. The activation step of lipogenesis converts acetyl-CoA into acetyl-ACP and malonyl-ACP, both of which use a new carrier protein known as the acyl carrier protein (ACP) On the left, as acetyl-CoA is converted to acetyl-ACP, ACP is added and CoA is released. The product, Acetyl-ACP, will become the first two carbons of a new fatty acid. On the right, as acetyl-CoA is converted to malonyl-ACP, ACP and CO are added and CoA is released. This reaction also consumes the energy from the hydrolysis of one ATPADP+Pi. The product, malonyl-ACP, will become each additional two carbons to a fatty acid chemicas Step 1. The first step of the lipogenesis cycle is classified as a condensation step. In the first cycle of lipogenesis, this step combines acetyl-ACP and malonyl- ACP to form a four carbon-ACP molecule. One carbon is lost in this reaction and an ACP molecule is released. acetyl-ACP malony-ACP Step 1 Step 2. This step is a more common metabolic reaction Classify Readtion: that matches our common metabolic reactions shown on the first page. If you compare the structures of the reactant and the product, you will notice that a ketone is converted to an alcohol. Once you classify the reaction, select the proper cofactor (see the first footnote on the bottom of page 1) and make sure the coupled reaction is opposite of the primary reaction. 2 chemicals Step 2 Classify Reaction: Step 3. This step is another common metabolic reaction Carefully notice the difference between the reactant and product and don't make the mistake of classifying this as an oxidation or a reduction.. it is NOT. Since it is not an oxidation or reduction, a cofactor is not needed Step 3 Classify Reaction: Step 4. The last step is another common metabolic reaction. Carefully look for the structural differences between the reactant (alkene) and the product (alkane) Noticing this difference will help you classify the reaction and identify the cofactor. Again, select the proper cofactor (see the first footnote on the bottom of page 1) and make sure the coupled reaction is opposite of the primary reaction The final product of one cycle of lipogenesis is an acyl-ACP molecule that goes through lipogeneiss again to gain 2 more carbons by reacting with another malonyl-ACP. This process continues until the fatty acid reaches the proper length. You may also note that the sequence of reactions in lipogenesis is the opposite of the sequence of reactions in the fatty acid Step 4 Classify Reaction:
. ATP Analysis. In metabolism, one of the most important goals is to produce energy. Energy production can be measured by how much ATP is produced when a molecule is completely metabolized through all four stages of metabolism. In this section, you will figure out how much ATP is produced when one fatty acid is completely metabolized. To figure this out, we must review the fatty acid spiral Initiation. The initiation step is an endergonic step that consumes energy to convert a fatty acid to a fatty acyl-CoA. This step requires the hydrolysis of one ATP to AMP. While this requires one ATP, two phosphates are cleaved from the molecule and this is comparable in energy released by the hydrolysis of two ATP to ADP. Therefore, to make our calculations easier, we are going to consider this a net loss of 2 ATP Change: loss of 2 ATP Steps 1-4. To completely break the fatty acyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA, the fatty acid spiral must "spin through steps 1-4 a number of times. The number of spins and the number of acetyl-CoA molecules can be calculated by looking at the structure of the fatty acid. If a fatty acid has 10 carbons, then the molecule could be broken down as shown below 4th 3rd 2nd st spin spin spin spin In this example, each of the first three spins of the fatty acid spiral produce ONE acetyl-CoA molecule. The fourth spin cleaves apart a four carbon fatty acyl-CoA molecule to produce TWO acetyl-CoA molecules. Based on this observation, we can calculate the number of spins and the number of acetyl-CoA molecules using the following equations Where n- number of carbons in the fatty acic n/2- number of Acetyl-CoA molecules n/2-1-number of "spins" of the fatty acid This calculation is important because the number of ATP produced is dependent upon how many acetyl-CoA molecules are produce AND how many reduced cofactors are produced Each acetyl-CoA is processed through the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain to produce 10 ATP .Each "spin" of the fatty acid spiral produces NADH (which results in 2.5 ATP) e Each "spin" of the fatty acid spiral produces FADH: (which results in 1.5 ATP) Your turn.. how many total net ATP are produced from the complete metabolism of behenic acid (22:0? Note: complete metabolism means that all cofactors are completely metabolized through stage 3 and 4 How many carbons are on this fatty acid? How many acetyl Co-A molecules are produced by the fatty acid spiral? How many "spins" of the fatty acid spiral are required? How many NADH are produced from the fatty acid spiral? How many FADH; molecules are produced from the fatty acid spiral? How many ATP are produced from the complete metabolism of the acetyl-CoA molecules? How many ATP are produced from the complete metabolism of the NADH molecules? How many ATP are produced from the complete metabolism of the FADH; molecules? How many ATP molecules are produced? How many ATP molecules are consumed in this process? How many net ATP molecules are produced?
0 0
Add a comment
Answer #1

Beta-oxidation of Behenic acid:
It is a 22C containing saturated fatty acid.
1 NADH = 2.5 ATP
1 FADH2 = 1.5 ATP

1. Number of carbon atoms = 22
2. Number of acetyl CoA produced = 22/2 = 11
3. Number of beta-oxidation cycles = (22/2)-1 = 10
4. Number of NADH produced from the fatty acid spiral = 10
5. Number of FADH2 produced from the fatty acid spiral = 10
6. Number of ATP produced from Acetyl CoA by TCA cycle = 11 X 10 = 110
7. Number of ATP produced from NADH = 10 X 2.5 = 25
8. Number of ATP produced from FADH2 = 10 X 1.5 = 15
9. Total ATP produced = 110+25+15 = 150
10. Number of ATP required for activation = 2
11. Net yield = 148 ATP

Beta-Oxidation cycle 0 H2O FAD FADH 2/ 0 Oxidation Hydration НН Acyl CoA trans-A*-Enoyl CoA L-3-Hydroxyacyl CoA NAD+ 3 |Oxida

Add a comment
Know the answer?
Add Answer to:
Fatty Acid Metabolism. The reactions of the fatty acid spiral are shown below. Use the description...
Your Answer:

Post as a guest

Your Name:

What's your source?

Earn Coin

Coins can be redeemed for fabulous gifts.

Not the answer you're looking for? Ask your own homework help question. Our experts will answer your question WITHIN MINUTES for Free.
Similar Homework Help Questions
  • (91 fatty Acid Metabolism. The reactions of the fatty acid spiral are shown below. Use the...

    (91 fatty Acid Metabolism. The reactions of the fatty acid spiral are shown below. Use the description on the left side of the page to classify the reactions and fil in the boxes on the right side of the page Aetivation Step. The activation of the fatty acid begins by the addition of CoA which will carry the fatty acid from the cytosol into the mitochondria. The product, which is a fatty acid with a CoA attached, is known as...

  • EOS Fatty acid metabolism: Q1 1 point possible (graded) Fatty acid synthase is primed with two...

    EOS Fatty acid metabolism: Q1 1 point possible (graded) Fatty acid synthase is primed with two molecules at the beginning of odd-chain fatty acid synthesis. What are these TWO molecules? Propionyl-COA Palmitoyl-CoA Malonyl-CoA Acetyl-COA I Acyl-Coa union How many molecules of malonyl-CoA would be invested to synthesize one molecule of the fatty acid shown above? How many molecules of NADPH would be invested to synthesize one molecule of the fatty acid shown above? How many molecules of ATP would be...

  • 2) Use this intermediate in fatty acid synthesis ACP The synthesis of this intermediate required one...

    2) Use this intermediate in fatty acid synthesis ACP The synthesis of this intermediate required one molecule of malonyl CoA two molecules of malony CoA three molecules of malonyl COA four molecules of malony CoA five molecules of malonyl COA Not listed 7) The molecules shown below are intermediates found in one round of fatty acid synthesis after the condensation step. so ACP ACP Which round of fatty acid synthesis is occurring in the reactions shown? The intermediate above is...

  • Fatty Acid Catabolism (B Oxidation) Examine Figure 12.15 to answer the questions below. B carbon -SCOA...

    Fatty Acid Catabolism (B Oxidation) Examine Figure 12.15 to answer the questions below. B carbon -SCOA 000000000000000 Fatty acyl CoA of 18C FAD FADH 00000000000000000 scoa @]H40 00000000000000001_scoa or NAD" HO HO -SCOA NAD K.NADH + H NADH+H* 0 0 000-SCOA 0000000000 © COA-SH -SCOA 0 0000000000000000-SCA Fatty acyl CoA of 16C repeats cycle (reactions 1-4) QUESTIONS 1. How is the fatty acyl CoA at the top of the cycle different from the fatty acyl COA at the bottom of...

  • Question 1. Calculate the numbers of acetyl-CoA molecules produced when a fatty acid with 14 carbons...

    Question 1. Calculate the numbers of acetyl-CoA molecules produced when a fatty acid with 14 carbons after undergoing beta-oxidation? Question 2. How many a) cycles of beta-oxidation will a fatty acid with 14 carbons undergo? Explain briefly. b)? How many acetyl-CoA molecules ? explain briefly? Question 3. Consider the synthesis of fatty acids: Answer the flowing: True or False: a) CoA carries intermediate b) Acetyl-CoA donates two carbon atoms c) Malonyl-CoA donates two carbon atoms d) The reverse of fatty...

  • 4. During the last step of the β-oxidation pathway for fatty acids, the intermediate below is con...

    Solve all 4. During the last step of the β-oxidation pathway for fatty acids, the intermediate below is converted to CH3 (CH2) 12ČCH2C-SCoA a. CH3 (CH2) 12C00H + CoA b. 2 CH3C-SCOA CH3 (CH2) 126CH2CHsCH3C-SCoA d. 5. The intermediate below is produced during the fatty acid synthesis pathway. The next reaction of the pathway at the double bond, involves which type of reaction? CH3 (CH2 ) 12CH=CHCH2-ACP -CH2CH2OH- d. none of the above 6. The product of the first step...

  • (1) put the molecule of the first round of lipogenesis in correct order (a) acetoacetyl-Acp (b)...

    (1) put the molecule of the first round of lipogenesis in correct order (a) acetoacetyl-Acp (b) 3-hydroxyacyl-Acp (c)malanyl Acp (d) trans-2-enoyl Acp (e) butynyl-Acp (2) put the intermediate of the B oxidation of fatty acids in order from first to last. to rank items as equivalent overlap them (a) fatty acyl coA (b)trans-enoyl CoA (c) B-hydroxyacyl CoA (d) B-keotoacyl CoA (e)Acetyl CoA (3) what is the total number of ATP molecules that can be produced from the complete oxidation of...

  • 1A) How many rounds/cycles of beta-oxidation would be needed to completely break down a 16-carbon fatty...

    1A) How many rounds/cycles of beta-oxidation would be needed to completely break down a 16-carbon fatty acid molecule? 8 6 10 7 9 1B) What type of reaction is step 2? isomerization hydration oxidation-reduction reaction hydrolysis 1C) What type of enzyme catalyzes step 3? oxidoreductase lyase hydrolase transferase ligase 1D) How many net ATP equivalents are generated by the complete break down of a 12-Carbon fatty acid molecule? 97 ATP 95 ATP 100 ATP 146 ATP 124 ATP 117 ATP...

  • Fatty acids are activated on the outer membrane of the mitochondria. This reaction involves the addition...

    Fatty acids are activated on the outer membrane of the mitochondria. This reaction involves the addition of a CoA group to the fatty acid (to generate an Acyl CoA), and the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP. After fatty acids are activated, they must be linked to carnitine for transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Then, how many carbons are oxidized at a time? What molecules are generated by fatty acid oxidation?

  • 2. For the fatty acid shown below: HOT a. Write the systematic name. b. How many...

    2. For the fatty acid shown below: HOT a. Write the systematic name. b. How many B-oxidation cycles are required for the complete conversion to acetyl- COA? c. Write a balanced overall equation for the complete B-oxidation of this fatty acid to acetyl-CoA. Don't forget the activation to fatty acyl-CoA.

ADVERTISEMENT
Free Homework Help App
Download From Google Play
Scan Your Homework
to Get Instant Free Answers
Need Online Homework Help?
Ask a Question
Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 3 hours.
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT