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Data : Indian Poverty
The primary purpose of this study is
To identify the relationship between the indicators of poverty rate in India.
To identify the unobservable factors of poverty rate.
To compare different states in India based on life poverty and its indicators.
The data consists of the major demographic indicators of India from the 2011 census year data of 28 states. Data on Human Development Index (HDI) and Income (per year) of India from the year 1990-2015 (26 years) is included. Data sources are as follows:
Data regarding poverty rate and socio-economic indicators are obtained from the official website of Reserve Bank of India (http://www.rbi.org.in).
Data regarding infant mortality rate is from the official website of Open Government Data Platform (http://www.data.gov.in).
Data regarding Human Development Index (HDI) is from the official website of United Nations Development Programme ( http://hdr.undp.org).
State wise data are obtained from Sample Registration System (SRS) Bulletin, under vital statistics division of India (http://www.censusindia.gov.in).
2011 census year data of 28 states is obtained from the handbook published by the planning commission of India-2014.
2.1 Variables under consideration
1. Poverty Rate:
The poverty rate is the ratio of the number of people who fall below the poverty line and the total population.
2. Literacy Rate:
The total percentage of the population of an area at a particular time aged seven years or above who can read and write with understanding. Here the denominator is the population aged seven years or more.
For comparing the relative strength of the number of males and females in a population, the common measure used is the sex-ratio which is defined as,
Here the radix under consideration is 1000. This simple measure can adequately describe the sex composition of a population.
4. Crime rate:
An offense rate, or crime rate, defined as the number of offenses per 10,000 population, is derived by first dividing a jurisdiction's population by 10,000 and then dividing the number of offenses by the resulting figure.
The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period, though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis.
Population is the totality of all human beings living at a certain time within a territory demarcated by natural, cultural or political boundaries
7. Per capita income:
Per capita income, also known as income per person, is the mean income of the people in an economic unit such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate (such as GDP or Gross national income) and dividing it by the total population.
8. Unemployment rate:
The percentage of the total labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment and willing to work. It is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force.
Area of states
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
11. Avg. house hold size
12. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):
The infant mortality rate is defined as the chance of dying of a newly born infant within a year of its life, under the given mortality conditions, and it is given by,
IMR = × 1000
The infant mortality rate is specially important in the analysis of mortality because infant deaths account for a substantial number of all deaths, especially in those countries where health conditions are poor.
ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Exploratory Data Analysis
Poverty rates of different states of India
Figure 1: poverty rate of India
From figure 1 it is evident that Uttar Pradesh has highest poverty rate (59.82) and Goa has lowest poverty rate (0.08) in India. All the states have less than 60 percentage poverty rate.
Table 1 shows minimum, maximum, mean, mode and standard deviation of all 12 variables.
Average Household size
Infant mortality rate
The proposed regression model is
Y = poverty rate
X1= literacy rate
X6 =per capita income
X7= unemployment rate
X10= average house hold size
=infant mortality rate
= 1.768 – 0.021 * – 7.472E-007 * + 6.369E-009 * – 6.062E-006 * - 0.716 *
where are literacy rate, GDP, percapita income, HDI and population respectively.
, we can infer that Kerala, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh are the Indian states where HDI, Crime rate, Sex ratio, Literacy, Percapita income are relatively high. Population, Area, Poverty rate and GDP are comparatively high in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka. Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir and Chhattisgarh are those states where Infant mortality rate, Average household size are relatively high. Mizoram, Haryana Meghalaya, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim are the Indian states where unemployment rate are high
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