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Student should name the inputs and outputs of the Energy Investment and Energy Payoff Phase of...

Student should name the inputs and outputs of the Energy Investment and Energy Payoff Phase of Glycolysis, and the number of carbon atoms in the carbohydrates named.

Student should name the inputs and outputs Pyruvate Oxidation, and the number of carbon atoms in the carbohydrates named.

Student should name the inputs and outputs of the Citric Acid cycle. Student should also identify the function of Oxaloacetate and Citrate in the Citric Acid cycle. Student should give the number of carbon atoms in each carbohydrate named.
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Glycolysis Energy investment phase

Preparatory phase is also called glucose activation phase. In this phase,two ATP are invested and glucose containing 6 carbon is cleaved into two triose phosphates.

In five steps glucose is converted into Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

  • Glucose - 6 carbon
  • Glucose-6-phosphate - 6 carbon
  • Fructose-6-phosphate - 6 carbon
  • Fructose-1,6-phosphate - 6 carbon
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate - 3 carbon
  • Dihydroxyacetone phosphate - 3 carbon

Glycolysis Energy Payoff phase

Also called as energy extraction phase. Glucose split into 2 molecules of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and each molecule of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted into pyruvate giving out total 4 ATP molecules.

  • 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate - 3 Carbon
  • 3-phosphoglycerate - 3 Carbon
  • 2-phosphoglycerate - 3 Carbon
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate - 3 Carbon
  • Pyruvate - 3 Carbon

The inputs and outputs of Pyruvate Oxidation

In pyruvate oxidation, 2 pyruvate molecules are transported from the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix and acetyl-CoA is formed with removal of 1 CO2 molecule and 1 NADH.

  • Pyruvate  - 3 Carbon
  • Acetyl CoA - 2 Carbon

The inputs and outputs of the Citric Acid cycle

Function of Oxaloacetate and Citrate in the Citric Acid cycle:-

These 2 molecules are required for the continous flow of citric acid cycle because for the formation of citrate, 2C acetyl CoA combines with 4C oxaloacetate along with H2O.

  • Citrate - 6Carbon
  • isocitrate - 6Carbon
  • -ketoglutarate - 5Carbon
  • Succinyl CoA - 4Carbon
  • Succinate - 4Carbon
  • Fumarate - 4Carbon
  • Malate - 4Carbon
  • Oxaloacetate - 4Carbon
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