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Below is the information: It is important to understand the different leadership styles employed by nursing...


It is important to understand the different leadership styles employed by nursing leaders in healthcare organizations and to
Below is the information:
Transactional Leadership A leader of this type will try to ensure that the staff complies with rules by instituting a system
325/2020 being. They perform beyond a How Nursing Leadership Sempadan Bradley University Online They perform beyond all expec
3/25/2020 outcomes. The results are quite fascina How Nursing Leadership Styles Impact Patients Bradley University Online of
Leadership styles in nursing NS899 Cope V. Murray M 2017 Leadership styles in nursing Nursing Standard. 31, 43,61-09 of submi
To write a CPD article Please email tanya fernandes@rcni.com Guidelines on writing for publication are available at: rcni.com
and Cummings et al (2010) asserted that nurses performance is influenced by the style of leadership their nurse leader exhib
KEY POINT 1994), demonstrated that transformational Emotionally intelligent leaders are Heckemann et al (2014) effective at r
KEY POINT Transactional leadership is otton effective in business settings where a return for an investment is highly valued,
KEY POINT Research has suggested that a lack of effective leadership can exacerbate the pressure and disarray that may be exp
evident (Dignam et al 2012, Bleich 2016). Leadership training might transform the performance of healthcare systems, by gener
cost reductions in healthcare, increased workloads and nursing staff shortages (Cope et al 2015). TIME OUT 6 Reflect on your
It is important to understand the different leadership styles employed by nursing leaders in healthcare organizations and to understand their significance on nursing practice and patient outcomes, for better or for worse. Objective: Read the articles from Nursing Standard (PDF) and Bradley University (PDF). In -250 words, formulate an opinion on the following: 1. Reflect on an occasion where you experienced ineffective leadership (doesn't have to be in the hospital). What behaviors did they display? What factors may have influenced their leadership style? 2. In your opinion, which leadership style corresponds to increased nursing satisfaction/performance, leading to improved patient outcomes? Why? 3. In your opinion, which leadership style has negative implications on nursing satisfaction/performance, leading to poor patient outcomes? Why?
Transactional Leadership A leader of this type will try to ensure that the staff complies with rules by instituting a system of rewards and punishments. Those individuals who follow his or her instructions and achieve the set targets will be rewarded accordingly. On the other hand, those who fail to obey and to reach the goals will be punished for their transgressions. This style is firmly focused on the supervision of subordinates, keeping the organization running smoothly and improving group performance. There is a keen interest in the work done by followers to find deviations. This leadership style is effective in managing a crisis and completing highly detailed projects. Transformational Leadership is leadership by example. Followers see their leader's behaviors, and they are inspired to the better. They see the hard work from the top as well as the concern for their well- change for the better. They see the hard wo adlox.edublog/how-nursing-leadership-style-con-impact-patient outcomes-and-organizational performancel https://onlinedegrees.bradley.edu/blog/how-nursing-leader 5/8
325/2020 being. They perform beyond a How Nursing Leadership Sempadan Bradley University Online They perform beyond all expectations because they put in more effort than usual. They no er put themselves first as they place more importance on what is best for the organization. aders provide a clear vision of the future that motivates staff members to exceed themselves. Old umptions and traditions are questioned to come up with novel ideas for solving problems more effectively. Democratic Leadership With this style, the team is encouraged to speak up and join in the decision-making process. The open communication makes all staff members feel that their voices matter. They are more concemned about the things that go on in the organization knowing that they can influence situations if they act on them. Workers are given their own personal responsibilities and are accountable for reaching certain targets. They get feedback on their performance, which allows them to adjust if necessary. The focus is on improving the quality of the systems and processes, not on finding errors made by the individual team members. Want to become a Nursing Leader? Authoritarian Leadership This approach is the opposite of the democratic style as the leader calls all the shots. Decisions are made rapidly without any form of consultation with the staff. All the power is concentrated at the top. and individuals at the bottom can only follow. Those team members who disagree and don't do as they are told are often punished to keep them in line. Knowledge may be kept in the hands of a few to keep the power within their ranks. When mistakes happen, authoritarians make an example of the offenders by punishing them in front of their peers. The blame is always on the individuals despite faulty processes. On the other hand, this style may be required in emergency situations when fast action is necessary. Laissez-faire Leadership In this style, very little supervision is exercised by the leaders. They prefer to take a hands-off approach to daily operations. They would rather let people do what they need to do on their own. perhaps trusting that they will be able to do well without guidance. While it does promote independent thinking, this approach can have several negative consequences. Important decisions are not made on time. Few changes ever happen at the workplace. Quality improvements happen when the situation begs for it. This style is frequently used by inexperienced leaders who are ring, as well as transitional managers who are simply waiting for someone to replace them. The Impact of Leadership Style on Patient Outcomes dublog how nursing spe ctacole comes and organizational performance https:onlinedegrees bradley.edublog how nursing leader
3/25/2020 outcomes. The results are quite fascina How Nursing Leadership Styles Impact Patients Bradley University Online of studies have looked into the relationships between nursing leadership and patient e results are quite fascinating, as they reveal definite links between the two. For nice, transformational leadership was associated with reduced medication errors in the majority the studies. It seems as though things are done much more carefully inside the hospital when this proach is taken. The style also was related to lower patient mortality in half of the studies. atents somehow get better care and treatment, which allow them to survive their ordeal. The relational types of leadership that include the transformation and collaborative styles have a common effect on patient satisfaction. People are generally happier with the service that they receive for both acute care and home health care. The need for restraints is also lessened as patients are much more cooperative with their nurses. Aside from the lower incidence of medication errors, there are also fewer reported hospital-acquired infections. If one is going to go to a hospital, then it is definitely preferable to be admitted to those that champion these relational leadership styles, as the outcome is more likely to be positive. Learn about becoming a Nursing Leader Nurse Preferences and Findings The National Institute of Health as well as the Journal of Nursing Administration published related studies in the past. It was found that transformational leadership was a positive contributor to a safer climate within the hospital. It was associated with reduced staff turnover when compared to the others. The nurses were happier with their work and chose to stay as a result. On the other hand, the laissez-faire approach was shown to negatively contribute to unit socialization. It also created a culture of blame among team members that only served to stress everyone unnecessarily. Additional findings showed that nurses were quickly able to distinguish the difference between transformational and transactional leadership. They might be similar styles, but the implementation and results are divergent. Nurses were much more in favor of the transformational approach as it promotes intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. They liked the idea of positive behavior influence and inspirational motivation, considered by many to be the most effective out of all the options out there. In truth, all the styles have their place and the mark of a good leader is wisdom in implementing the right style at the right time.
Leadership styles in nursing NS899 Cope V. Murray M 2017 Leadership styles in nursing Nursing Standard. 31, 43,61-09 of submission: 15 February 2017, date of acceptance: May 2017. doi: 10.7748/.20710836 Vicki Cope Associate professor of nursing School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia Abstract Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This artide discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective core. Melanie Murray Lecturer, School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia Keywords leadership, leadership skills, leadership styles, management, professional development, transactional leadership, transformational leadership Correspondence v.cope@murdoch.edu.au @vickicsinc Conflict of interest None declared Peer review This article has been subject to external double-blind peer review and checked for plagiarism using automated software Aims and intended learning outcomes This article aims to explore leadership and leadership styles. It provides information about a range of leadership styles, outlining those most commonly referred to in the nursing literature. After reading this article and completing the time out activities you should be able to: ► Outline the various leadership styles relevant to nursing. Describe your leadership style and its potential effects in your work environment. >> Discuss the characteristics of transformational and transactional leadership styles. > Evaluate your strengths and capabilities in leadership as well as potential areas for development. Reflect on and develop your own or others' leadership styles. Revalidation Prepare for revalidation: read this CPD article, answer the questionnaire and write a reflective account:reni.com/ revalidation Nurses and Midwives to their professional practice (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) 2015). The themes are: Prioritise people, Practise effectively. Preserve safety and Promote professionalism and trust. This article relates to The Code in the following ways: It emphasises the importance of effective leadership in nursing practice and healthcare. The Code states that nurses must provide leadership to ensure people's well-being is protected and to improve their experience of healthcare. It asserts that all nurses are leaders in terms of providing effective care and maintaining safety. This is in line with The Code, which states that nurses must identify priorities, manage time, staff and resources effectively, and deal with risk to ensure the quality of care or service they provide is maintained and improved. The Code requires nurses to work cooperatively and communicate effectively. This article describes the benefits of nurses being aware of Online For related articles visit the archive and search using the keywords Relevance to The Code Nurses are encouraged to apply the four themes of The Code: Professional Standards of Practice and Behaviour for nursingstandard.com volume 31 number 43 / 21 June 2017 (61
To write a CPD article Please email tanya fernandes@rcni.com Guidelines on writing for publication are available at: rcni.com/writeforus leadership styles, stating that they might find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. It provides information about the behaviours and skills of effective leaders. The Code states that nurses should be a model of integrity and leadership for others to aspire to, to promote professionalism and trust. The Code theme of practising effectively states that nurses must ensure their knowledge and skills are up to date. This article emphasises the importance of developing leadership skills through training. Introduction The concepts of leadership and management are frequently linked, and these terms are often used synonymously; however, they are not one and the same (Daly et al 2004, Dignam et al 2012, Marquis and Huston 2012). Marquis and Huston (2012) outlined the main differences between a leader and a manager: leaders do not necessarily have designated authority; leaders might not form part of the hierarchy; leaders empower others; and leaders place emphasis on interpersonal relationships. The development of interpersonal relationships between nursing staff can significantly influence patient outcomes. Cummings et al (2010) suggested that effective leader and follower relationships among staff result in positive patient outcomes, whereas suboptimal leader and follower relationships might lead to suboptimal care. In contrast to leaders, managers plan, organise, employ staff, and control resources (Marquis and Huston 2012, Day and Leggat 2015). Leaders in the healthcare setting are often assumed to mean unit managers, nursing directors, or the facility executives. However, leadership is not necessarily formal; that is, designated as a managerial role with formal responsibilities in relation to people and resources. Often, nurses might not realise they are in informal positions of leadership every day, because of their ability to influence the safety and quality of patient care as part of their nursing role (Marquis and Huston 2012, Daly et al 2014). For example, the nurse who takes charge of responding to an emergency situation is acting as a leader, even if they have not been formally required to direct the team involved. When considering informal leadership in the ward environment, leaders stand out as those facilitating and delivering optimal care (Daly et al 2014). The literature demonstrates a link between effective nursing leadership, improved recruitment and nursing staff retention, a positive workplace environment and improved patient safety (Aiken et al 2002, Cummings et al 2010 Wong et al 2013, Hendricks et al 2015). Therefore, it is important for nurses to understand the concept of leadership and its influence on everyday nursing. Leadership is a set of behaviours, rather than a formal position. Effective leadership is not necessarily a natural ability, but with training in specific knowledge and skills, effective leadership BOX I. Healthcare workforce issues that may affect leadership Business management models taking precedence over care, meaning that nurses are often required to do more with less >> Excessive administrative burden Lack of recognition of the importance of nurse leaders in high levels of the organisation Imposed organisational change and restructuring - removing nurse leadership roles from the organisation Nursing staff shortages and suboptimal staff retention > Lack of organisational support • The casualisation (transformation of the workforce - the move away from a full-time workforce to that of part time and casual workers (Adapted from Australian College of Nursing 2015)
and Cummings et al (2010) asserted that nurses' performance is influenced by the style of leadership their nurse leader exhibits. can be developed (Giltinane 2013, Daly et al 2015, Fischer 2016). Box 1 outlines the healthcare workforce issues that may affect leadership. Many nurses are placed in positions of formal leadership without receiving training in the behaviours and skills associated with effective leadership, or without having the time to learn and assimilate these behaviours and skills (Hendricks et al 2010). The International Council of Nurses (2012) identified the requirement to establish the Global Nursing Leadership Institute, because it recognised that effective leadership is paramount to the optimisation of patient outcomes (Aiken et al 2016). The establishment of the Global Nursing Leadership Institute recognises that it is a healthcare priority for nurses to be provided with opportunities to learn about leadership and be mentored during the process of becoming a leader (Mancuso 2016). Leadership styles There are several leadership styles identified in the nursing literature. Cummings (2012) stated that most styles can be characterised as either relational leadership or task-focused leadership. Relational leadership styles focus on people and relationships, and includes transformational, emotional intelligence, resonant and participatory leadership. These styles are associated with increased staff satisfaction, organisational commitment, improved staff health and well-being, stress reduction, job satisfaction, increased productivity, effective working and positive patient outcomes (Cummings 2012). In contrast, task-focused leadership is associated with lower values for all these outcomes (Cummings 2012), and is focused on job completion, deadlines, and directives. Task-focused leadership styles include transactional, autocratic and laissez- faire leadership. Table 1 describes the characteristics associated with transformational and transactional leadership. TIME OUT 1 How would you define leadership? What traits do you consider important for effective leadership? Why do you think those particular traits are important? Chunharas and Davies (2016) defined leadership as 'the ability to identify priorities, set a vision, and mobilise the actors and resources needed to achieve them'. Leadership requires a certain amount of influence to accomplish a goal (Wong et al 2013) and, depending on the goal, may require a particular leadership style or combination of styles. Brady Germain and Cummings (2010) Relational leadership styles Transformational leadership Transformational leadership is considered to be the gold standard of leadership The seminal work of Burns in the 1970s (Burns 1978) further developed by Bass and Avolio in the 1980s (Bass and Avolio TABLE I. Characteristics of transformational and transactional leadership Transformational leaders Transactional leaders Catalysts for change Do not identity with shared values of the team , Democratic in their approach - share responsibilities with Focus on managerial tasks the followers ► Goal-orientated -asks to be completed for reward Goal-orientated - set clear expectations Lead change Intellectual stimulators - Influence followers to create and Make decisions quickly-elective in crises pursue new ideas Motivational - provide rewards for the completion of tasks Inspirational Visionary - actively promote and articulate a vision Molfe 20, Giltinane 2013, Day and Leggat 2015, McFadden et al 2015, Merrill 2015, O'Connor and Carlson 2
KEY POINT 1994), demonstrated that transformational Emotionally intelligent leaders are Heckemann et al (2014) effective at resolving conflict because leadership is central to nursing, because asserted that leading with they have the ability to see the situation of its influence on a safety culture, emotional intelligence staff satisfaction and patient outcomes through the eyes of others and to manage may reduce any distrust (Cummings et al 2010, Squires et al 2010, work stress, which gives them the between nursing staff Fischer 2016). confidence to lead during challenging and nurse leaders who Transformational nurse leaders place situations and manage the emotional are increasingly removed nurses and nursing first; are positive aspects of providing patient care and from bedside nursing under pressure; form connections with directing staff (Karimi and Rada 2015). their followers are an effective mentor Heckemann et al (2014) asserted that and role model; and have a set of core leading with emotional intelligence values that they adhere to with integrity may reduce any distrust between (Anonson et al 2014). These leaders nursing staff and nurse leaders, who are motivational and empowering and are increasingly removed from bedside they inspire others to identify with and nursing. Emotional intelligence is also pursue a long-term vision in relation associated with the resonant leadership to organisational goals and individual style (Heckemann et al 2014). nurses' career goals (Marquis and Huston 2012, Brewer et al 2016). They Resonant leadership usually adopt a democratic approach and Resonant leadership is based on share responsibility with their followers emotional intelligence and mindfulness, (Giltinane 2013) and, as leaders, which involves approaching issues by they gain trust through developing focusing on the present moment and relationships, listening, responding, being open and responsive without and empathising with their followers judgement (Brendel and Bennett 2016). (Cummings et al 2010). However, to Resonant leaders seek to empower their ensure effective leadership, Mannix et al colleagues with confidence and energy so (2013) and Marquis and Huston (2012) that they feel stronger and more capable suggested that transformational leaders of achieving the work goals assigned may require transactional leadership to them. They enable their followers skills for the day-to-day management of confidently to flourish through coaching, organisations and the people in them. developing trust, and being attuned to their emotions (Squires et al 2010, Emotional intelligence leadership Laschinger et al 2014, Bawafaa et al Emotional intelligence was first discussed 2015). Resonant leaders possess the as an emerging leadership style and emotional intelligence attributes of an attribute of transformational and self-awareness, self-management, resonant leadership in the 1980s. It social awareness and relationship has been described as having four management (Boyatzis and McKee 2006, prominent constructs: self-awareness, Laschinger et al 2014), which means they self-management, social awareness are effective at conflict resolution and and social skills (Ledlow and Coppola able to pursue democratic collaborative 2014). Emotionally intelligent leaders are and affiliative solutions (Day and Lergat sensitive to their own and their followers 2015). well-being, feelings and emotional health, Similar to transformational leaders, and they develop effective personal resonant leaders are visionary and relationships while directing followers to strive to create optimistic and inspiring common work goals (Karimi and Rada environments through demonstration 2015). Emotionally intelligent leaders and coaching, passion and commitment manage and reflect on their emotions (Boyatzis and Mckee 2006, Squires et al and make rational decisions to effect change and cooperation in the workplace, 2010). As with emotionally intelligent engendering teamwork and collaboration leaders, resonant leaders have effective control over their emotions! 64 / 21 June 2017 / volume 31 number 43 nursingstandard.com
KEY POINT Transactional leadership is otton effective in business settings where a return for an investment is highly valued, and may have a positive effect on the workforce because of the rewards received on completing a task However, in nursing this can lead to a non-holistic approach to patient care as a result of the focus on task completion (Giltinane 2013) and are attuned to the emotions of Transactional leadership is often effective their followers, resulting in a sense in business settings, where a return for of empowerment in these followers an investment is highly valued, and may have a positive effect on the workforce (Squires et al 2010. Heckemann et al 2014, Bawafaa et al 2015). The outcomes because of the rewards received of this style of leadership include on completing a task. However, in increased staff satisfaction, increased nursing, this can lead to a non-holistic intention to remain in the nursing approach to patient care as a result of profession, reduced stress, and the focus on task completion (Giltinane increased collaboration and teamwork 2013). In crisis situations, where clear (Bawafaa et al 2015). direction is required, the transactional leadership approach is an effective style TIME OUT 2 of healthcare leadership. 'Do this now! Read the World Health Organization (WHO) (2016) flagship may be the best leadership style for the report on Open Mindsets: Participatory Leadership direction of critical incidents (Giltinane for Health List three reasons why this report focuses 2013, Bish 2015). on participatory leadership. How could this type of A form of transactional leadership is leadership assist you to address any leadership-related autocratic leadership. Autocratic leaders challenges you experience in your practice? have been described as power-orientated, close-minded and controlling, which Participatory leadership can mean some people find these leaders In participatory leadership, the opinions challenging to work with (Giltinane 2013). of individuals and groups about their While these leaders may be disliked by work are taken into account (WHO some nursing staff because they demand 2016). Knowledge, experience, skills and obedience, loyalty and strict adherence innovation are highly valued in decision to rules, others often work well under making processes, using wide expertise the autocratic leader. One advantage of and engagement to get things done. This this leadership style is that it can result in style of leadership is based on respect positive outcomes, because these leaders and wider community involvement, and promote structure and prioritise needs is effective in optimising the collective (Giltinane 2013). strengths and perspectives of people to One aspect of transactional leadership overcome challenges in organisations. In is management by exception', in which 2016, the WHO called for participatory leaders intervenc only as they deem leadership to replace existing hierarchical necessary (Giltinane 2013, Anderson models of leadership in healthcare, and Sun 2017): that is, the leader takes asserting that inclusivity and the corrective action based on the results of engagement of diverse stakeholders will leader-follower transactions (Anderson and strengthen healthcare systems (WHO Sun 2017). Management by exception is 2016). either active; that is correcting behaviours before they become an issue, or passive Task-focused leadership styles - not acting until behaviours become an Transactional and autocratic leadership issue (Giltinane 2013, Anderson and Sun Transactional leadership is a task-focused 2017). Passive management by exception leadership style. It is usually episodic, is commonly associated with suboptimal and involves short-term goals. In performance and thus suboptimal patient transactional leadership, there is an care. exchange or reward for completing a rask. This may be motivational for the Laissez-faire leadership follower with communication commonly Laissez-faire leadership is a task-focused related to goal-setting and positive style of leadership because it involves feedback for successful completion of the task (Bish 2015, Scully 2015). the setting of tasks in times of crisis, thus demonstrating reactive leadership. nursingstandard.com volume 31 number 43 / 21 June 2017 (65
KEY POINT Research has suggested that a lack of effective leadership can exacerbate the pressure and disarray that may be experienced in contemporary nursing environments amid constant change. Laissez-faire leadership and/or a lack of leadership can have significant negative effects on employee satisfaction and effectiveness, which might ultimately affect patient care (Skogstad et al 2014) Laissez-faire leadership denotes the diminished presence of leadership or a "hands-off approach. Laissez-faire leaders leave decisions to others, and their response to crises is reactive rather than proactive. This style of leadership is often used by inexperienced leaders or those who are about to vacate their leadership position, who prefer to leave the work of leading to others, such as their followers or the person who will replace them in their position (Giltinane 2013). Passive management by exception may also be seen as a trait of laissez-faire leadership Ineffective leadership Research has suggested that a lack of effective leadership can exacerbate the pressure and disarray that may be experienced in contemporary nursing environments amid constant change. Laissez-faire leadership and/or a lack of leadership can have significant negative effects on employee satisfaction and effectiveness, which might ultimately affect patient care (Skogstad et al 2014). Ineffective leaders may have suboptimal interpersonal skills, may be incompetent, and may be perceived by staff as demotivating, callous and corrupt. These traits affect staff productivity, absenteeism and morale (Anonson et al 2014). Many people do not take action when they witness or experience ineffective leadership, and the literature indicates there is often a lack of assertiveness among nurses in denouncing ineffective leadership (Johnson 2012, Schyns and Schilling 2013). This may be, in part, because of the rapid and continual changes in healthcare, which can result in change fatigue and nurses becoming apathetic in response to insidious ineffective leadership (Vestal 2013). Instrumental leadership Instrumental leadership focuses on choosing a suitable strategy, along with the appropriate resources, to achieve work goals. This style of leadership lies on the spectrum between transformational and transactional leadership styles (Hooijberg and Antonakis 2014). An instrumental leader takes the bigger picture visions of the transformational leader and asks logistical questions, such as: 'How do I make this vision happen?', 'Is the vision realistic and 'What implications are associated with this vision?' (Hooijberg and Antonakis 2014). They are focused on the 'small picture'; that is, issues in the immediate work setting (Hooijberg and Antonakis 2014). Instrumental leaders can be effective managers, because they lead to maintain productivity, so that tasks are completed in line with the organisation's resources, or healthcare facility's strategic vision and time constraints (Hooijberg and Antonakis 2014). TIME OUT 5 Change in healthcare is likely to continue. Are there any indicators that you or your colleagues have reached the limit of their capacity to manage change? Are your leaders aware of this, and what could they do to address this issue? TIME OUT 3 What leadership styles are prevalent in your area of work? What do you think has led to the development of these leadership styles? Leadership training Contemporary healthcare issues concerning skill mix, workforce shortages and staff turnover, and increasing patient acuity levels affect clinical practice (Mannix et al 2013, Aiken et al 2016). Leadership training may have a beneficial effect on these issues, whether this is as part of the nursing undergraduate curriculum, or as an extracurricular activity for nursing students (Hendricks et al 2010, Paterson et al 2010). The value of early leadership development and postgraduate leadership training is also TIME OUT 4 Reflect on an occasion where you experienced or witnessed ineffective leadership. What behaviours did the ineffective leader display, and how did you respond? Consider what may influence an individuals approach to leadership. 66 / 21 June 2017 / volume 31 number 43 nursingstandandom
evident (Dignam et al 2012, Bleich 2016). Leadership training might transform the performance of healthcare systems, by generating new leaders from within the existing system through education and support (Frenk et al 2010). Leadership is an important professional responsibility in nursing. All nurses have a role in leadership, from nurses taking the responsibility to report ineffective leadership and suboptimal care, to the development of professional behaviours of resonant leaders, to exemplary leadership, which enables followers to provide safe, high-quality patient care (Dignam et al 2012, Bleich 2016). This is especially important in times of increased nursing staff turnover and intention to leave the profession, because effective leadership is an element of a positive work environment and can improve nursing staff retention (Heinen et al 2013, Aiken et al 2016). Box 2 outlines the typical behaviours and attributes of effective leaders that are relevant for nurses. Leadership has a direct effect on nursing staff retention; therefore, one way to improve retention is to develop effective leaders throughout the nursing profession through education and mentorship (McCloughen et al 2011, Wong et al 2013). Nurses who are competent leaders and prepared for the role have an improved ability to manage healthcare demands, and are increasingly likely to remain in the profession, which reduces the cost of staff turnover in healthcare organisations (Roche et al 2015). Therefore, it is necessary for engagement in leadership training to occur at all levels of nursing Nurses could proactively engage in leadership training by undertaking leadership development programmes or enrolling in healthcare leadership and management courses. This will develop nurses' leadership skills and resilience, which would assist the effective functioning of the multidisciplinary team, and contribute to retaining staff in times of new economic managerialism, which is associated with downsizing and BOX 2. Typical behaviours and attributes of effective leaders ► Aiming for operational excellence ► Aiming high, setting challenging goals for their followers and themselves >> Benchmarking against best practice to raise awareness of high standards and what to reach for >> Committed >> Critical thinkers >> Emotionally inteligent Engaged in their continuing professional development Acting as a role model by setting an example for this and other professional behaviours > Ethical, fair, sincere and transparent >> Flexible - understand and embrace change >> Have a succession plan to generate new leaders >> Have confidence in their staft, empowering them with responsibility and autonomy > Inclusive > Integrating leadership and mentorship >> Interactive and communicative Listening to, valuing and respecting their colleagues ideas and rewarding their accomplishments appropriately Making use of research and evidence to understand issues, making decisions based on fact Mobilising the resources available >> Passionate >Present and available > Proactively advocating a culture of quality and safety ► Providing constructive and positive feedback to staff Sharing leadership Taking a different perspective to solve issues, looking outside the box and being solution focused Taking on challenges
cost reductions in healthcare, increased workloads and nursing staff shortages (Cope et al 2015). TIME OUT 6 Reflect on your own leadership attributes. What are your strengths? What are your areas for development? What type of leader are you and what type do you want to be? List five actions you could take to improve your leadership capabilities. You may wish to discuss this with a colleague it may be beneficial to use a solutions- based approach; that is, emphasising the professional development of staff, specifically in relation to developing nurses' leadership knowledge and skills. All nurses are leaders, in terms of providing effective care and maintaining safety, and they should be able to access leadership training to maintain this role. Present and available exemplary nurse leaders in all roles are essential for the provision of safe care for the protection of public health, which is the aim of nursing practice. Conclusion There are a range of leadership styles that may be used in healthcare organisations and among nurse leaders, and it may be beneficial for nurses to be aware of these styles in their workplace. Many solutions have been suggested to address issues in healthcare, with effective leadership among these solutions. However, rather than focusing on issues in the healthcare system, TIME OUT 7 Nurses are encouraged to apply the four themes of The Code (NMC 2015) to their professional practice. Consider how effective leadership in nursing relates to The Code. TIME OUT 8 Now that you have completed the article you might like to write a reflective account as part of your revalidation.
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Answer #1

From the following articles and my opinion.

A.On my experience of ineffective leadership they exhibited Laissez faire Leadership.

Factor's contributing for laissez faire leadership was ,a.different caders of team member's and their experience ,b.Lack of experience to the team leader.c.New to the institution.

B.On my opinion Transformational leadership corresponding to incerse Nursing satisfactory performance.

Because This leadership quality was inspirational to team member's due to Democratic behavior of leader.Democratic behavior stimulates team member's to work effectively. This behavior drive team member's towards goal.Transformational leader ship include all of team members in decisions making encourage for critical thinking . So Nurses get work satisfaction.

C.Laissez faire leadership show negative impact on nursing satisfactory performance and leading to negative out come.

Because in this leadership less supervision.,leader may have sub optimal interpersonal skills.This behavior perceived as demotivating by staff members.

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