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Hello, any help would be greatly appreciated.

Please summarize the similarities and  differences between the processes that occur during Mitosis and Meiosis during each phase. Example: Prophase and Prophase 1: what are the key similarities and differences ...

Mitosis

Meiosis

Prophase

Prophase I

Metaphase

Metaphase I

Anaphase

Anaphase I

Telophase

Telophase I

Prophase

Prophase II

Metaphase

Metaphase II

Anaphase

Anaphase II

Telophase

Telophase

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Answer #1

Mitosis

Meiosis

similarity

Differences

Prophase

Prophase I

Chromosomes condense and the centrosomes begin to form an early spindle.

During mitosis, each duplicated chromosome appears as 2 sister chromatids joined together while in meiosis homologous chromosomes each composed of 2 sister chromosomes come together as pairs (ie tetrad). An exchange of corresponding segments (crossing over) occurs between two homologous chromosomes at the chiasma occurs in prophase I and is much longer than that of mitotic prophase.

Metaphase

Metaphase I

chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate due to the action of microtubule spindle fibers

In meiotic metaphase I,  pairs of homologous chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate and in prophase of mitosis only a single chromosome/ pair of chromatids line up along the metaphase plate.

Anaphase

Anaphase I

In anaphase, chromosomes are split to opposite poles of the cell.

In anaphase of meiosis I cohesin at the centromeres of the chromosomes is not cleaved only homologous chromosomes are segregated to opposite cell poles while in anaphase of mitosis. cohesin protein holding the centromeres of the sister chromatids together is cleaved, allowing the sister chromatids to segregate to opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase

Telophase I

A nuclear membrane reappears around the newly separated chromosomes and becomes less condensed

In mitosis spindle fibers completely disappears in Telophase, while in Telophase I spindle fibers are present.

Prophase

Prophase II

the chromosomes condense into tight structures, and the nuclear membrane disintegrates, spindle fibers are formed

Each dividing cell has only one set of homologous chromosomes.

Metaphase

Metaphase II

The events of metaphase II are similar to those of mitotic metaphase ie., the chromosomes line up along the cell's equatorial plate, also called the metaphase plate,

        -do-

Anaphase

Anaphase II

During anaphase II, The sister chromatids separate, and the microtubules pull them to opposite poles of the cell. As in mitosis, each chromatid is now considered a separate chromosome

          -do-

Telophase

Telophase

Finally, in telophase II, as in mitosis nuclear membranes reforms around the newly separated chromosomes.

          -do-

Kindly note: The mechanics of meiosis II is similar to mitosis, except that each dividing cell has only one set of homologous chromosomes.

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